Evaluation of spring water quality using water quality index method for Bageshwar District, Uttarakhand, India



Published Mar 28, 2022
Mohd Azam
Jyothi Prasad
H J Shiva Prasad


The quality of spring water is highly important to the people of hills for their everyday lives in Bageshwar district, which is located in Uttarakhand's Eastern Kumaon area between latitudes 29.49° N and 79.45° E, at an elevation of 1,004 meters above mean sea level. The study area map was created using the open-source freeware software QGIS, and the geocoding of the selected area was performed by entering Latitude and Longitude coordinates. Spring water were collected and analysed based on the standard methods for the eleven springs of Bageshwar city and its nearby villages for two seasons during the winter (December 2019) and in summer (March 2020). The present study assessed the drinking water quality of perennial spring in and around Bageshwar using the WQI by Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index Method. For calculating the WQI, 15 physicochemical parameters, namely, pH, alkalinity, Chloride, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Potassium, Sodium, Fluoride, Iron, Nitrate, Calcium, Magnesium and Total Hardness were taken. The WQI values show that spring water with WQI values ranging from 4.57 to 17.83 in winter season 6.72 to 27.72 in summer season falls under excellent category, except for Bhaniya Dhaar-1 (BS8) village spring, which were classified to good water category.  A paired t-test was applied to compare significant variations in water quality between two seasons, revealing a significant difference (p value<0.05) in water quality between seasons. Water from all of the evaluated spring sources is safe to drink, despite the fact that some parameters exceed permitted limits. To ensure the quality and security of the water supply to the people of these regions, it is preferable to conduct a simple filtration process before drinking the water sampled from the springs.

How to Cite

Azam, M. ., Prasad, J. ., & Prasad, H. J. S. . (2022). Evaluation of spring water quality using water quality index method for Bageshwar District, Uttarakhand, India. Environment Conservation Journal. https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.021989-2209


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 3 | PDF Downloads 0



Perennial Springs, Physicochemical Parameters, QGIS, Water Quality Index (WQI)

Adimalla, N., & Venkatayogi, S. (2018). Geochemical characterization and evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural utility in semi-arid region of Basara, Telangana state, South India. Applied Water Science, 8(44).
Agarwal, V., Vaish, A.K., & Vaish, P. (1997). Groundwater quality: focus on fluoride and fluorosis in Rajasthan, Current Science, 73 (9), 743–746.
Aly, A. A., Al-Omran, A. M., & Alharby M. M. (2015). The water quality index and hydrochemical characterization of groundwater resources in HafarAlbatin, Saudi Arabia. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(6), 4177–4190.
APHA, (2012). “Standard Methods for the examination of Water and Wastewater”, Lenore S C, Greenberg A E, Eaton A D, (Eds.), 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, NW, Washington, DC.
Balan, I. N., Shivakumar, M., & Kumar, P. D. M. (2012). An assessment of ground water quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Chronicles of Young Scientists, 3(2), 146-150.
Barakat, A., Meddah, R., Afdali, M., & Touhami, F. (2018). Physicochemical and microbial assessment of spring water quality for drinking supply in Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco). Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 104, 39-46.
Baunthiyal, M., Rai, D., & Ranghar, S. (2015). Water quality assessment and mapping of natural and ground water resources in Pauri region of Uttarakhand. Environment Conservation Journal, 16(1&2), 51-56.
Bhat, S. U., Pandit, A. K., & Mudathir, R. (2010). Limnological investigation of three freshwater springs of Pulwama district—Kashmir valley. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 2(2), 88–94.
Bhutiani, R., Ram, K., & Ahamad, F. (2019). Assessment of suitability of ground water quality in and around Laksar, Haridwar, Uttarakhand on the basis Water Quality Index (WQI). Environment Conservation Journal, 20(1&2), 41-46.
Bhutiani, R., Ahamad, F., Tyagi, V., & Ram, K. (2018). Evaluation of water quality of River Malin using water quality index (WQI) at Najibabad, Bijnor (UP) India. Environment Conservation Journal, 19(1&2), 191-201.
BIS. (2012). Indian standard specification for drinking water (IS 10500: 2012). Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Brown, R. M., McCleiland, N. J., Deiniger, R. A., & O’Connor, M. F. A. (1972). Water quality index—Crossing the physical barrier. Proceedings of the International Conference on Water Pollution Research Jerusalem, (Jenkis, S. H. ed.), 6, 787-797.
Bui, Y., & Lodhi, M. S. (2020). Assessment of spring water quality using water quality index method–study from upper subansiri district, Arunachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 9 (6), 898 – 908.
Chauhan, J. S., Badwal, T., & Badola, N. (2020). Assessment of potability of spring water and its health implication in a hilly village of Uttarakhand, India. Applied Water Science, 10(2), 73.
Chowdhury, R. M., Muntasir, S. Y., & Hossain, M. M. (2012). Water quality index of water bodies along Faridpur-Barisal Road in Bangladesh. Global Engineers and Technology Review, 2(3), 1–8.
Daghara, A., Al-Khatib, I. A., & Al-Jabari, M. (2019). Quality of drinking water from springs in Palestine: West Bank as a case study. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2019, article ID 8631732, 7 pages.
Gupta, D., Singh, G., Patel, A. K., Shukla, R., Mishra, U., & Mishra, V. K. (2019). An assessment of groundwater quality of Varanasi District using water quality index and multivariate statistical techniques. Environment and we—An international journal of science and technology, 14, 143–157.
Hem, J. D. (1985). Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water (Vol. 2254). Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey.
Horton, R. K. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 37(3), 300–305.
Krishnan, R. R., Dharmaraj, K., & Kumari, B. D. (2005). A comparative study on the physicochemical and bacterial analysis of drinking, bore well and sewage water in the three different places of Sivakasi. Journal of Environmental Biology, 28(1), 105–108.
Kumar, K., Rawat, D. S., & Joshi, R. (1997). Chemistry of spring water in Almora, Central Himalaya, India. Environmental Geology, 31(3–4), 150–156.
Pasqual, J., & Souto, G. (2003). Sustainability in natural resource management. Ecological Economics, 46(1), 47–59.
Ramakrishnaiah, C. R., Sadashivaiah, C., & Ranganna, G. (2009). Assessment of water quality index for the groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka state, India. E-Journal of Chemistry, 6(2), 523–530.
Rao, C. S., Rao, B. S., Hariharan, A. V. L. N. S. H., & Bharathi, N. M. (2010). Determination of water quality index of some areas in Guntur district Andhra Pradesh. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 1(1), 79–86.
Ruhela, M., Kumar, P., Tyagi, V., Ahamad, F., & Ram, K. (2018). Assessment of water quality of River Ganga at Haridwar with reference to water Quality Index. Environment Conservation Journal, 19(3), 47–58.
Ruhela, M., Sharma, K., Bhutiani, R., Chandniha, S. K., Kumar, V., Tyagi, K., ... & Tyagi, I. (2022). GIS-based impact assessment and spatial distribution of air and water pollutants in mining area. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-15.
Tiwari, S. (2015). Water quality parameters –A review. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention Research & Development, 1(9), 6185¬-2349.
Toma, J. J., Ahmed, R. S., & Abdulla, Z. K. (2013). Application of water quality index for assessment water quality in some bottled water Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology, 4(4), 128-134.
Tripathi, B. D., & Govil, S. R. (2001). Water pollution (An experimental approach). CBS publisher and Distributors, New Delhi.
Vilane, B. R. (2016). An Assessment of the Mhlambanyoni Spring Water Quality at Sigombeni, Swaziland. African Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering. Thulane and Dalmini, J, 2(5), 40–45.
World Health Organization (2011). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland, 4, 518.
Zeb, B. S., Malik, A. H., Waseem, A., & Mahmood, Q. (2011). Water quality assessment of Siran river, Pakistan. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 6(34), 7789-7798.