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Hydroponic crops can be grown using a variety of media and production systems (NFT system, wick system, drip system, ebb flow system etc.). EC and pH management are required to successfully handle these hydroponic systems (water quality and nutrient solution maintenance). These hydroponics systems have gained rapid adoption due to disciplined management of their resources and food production. Although the hydroponic system was developed in a closed-loop system, and substrate nutrition increases production, it is not cost-effective to develop this system on big scale. It is critical to design a low-cost hydroponic structure that decreases reliance on human labour and lowers overall startup cost in order to increase the commercialization of hydroponic farms. We need more research to develop more productive and cost-effective organic nutrient solutions and improve hydroponic crop production systems. In this review paper, we will discuss the opportunity and challenges in hydroponic crop production systems. 


Ebb flow system EC and pH management Hydroponics NFT system Wick system Water Use Efficiency

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How to Cite
Kumar, S., Singh, M. ., Yadav, K., & Singh, P. . (2021). Opportunities and constraints in hydroponic crop production systems: A review. Environment Conservation Journal, 22(3), 401–408.


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