The interactive effects of three non-fodder Indian arid plant species, Tephrosia purpurea, Aerva persica, and Calotropis procera, and four Aspergillus fungal species on soil enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatase, -glucosidase, dehydrogenase, urease, and amidase activities) were temporally assessed (15 and 30 days withdrawals). The results were statistically analysed using ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCoA). Aside from these, a biochemical soil quality index was created by assigning a weighted score to each enzyme and analysing it using PCA. This study found that various litter-fungal species complexes acted differently and that their effects changed over time, specifically for acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, and amidase. Dehydrogenase and urease activities increased with predictors over time. With temporal backwash, all four fungal species with C. procera inhibit acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and beta-glucosidase activities (i.e., more at 15 days and lesser after 30 days). Our current findings suggest that (a) urease activities were modulated by A. persica in cooperation with fungi like A. terreus, A. niger, and A. flavus at specific enzyme levels; (b) In assistance with fungi such as A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. persica, amidase concentration was successfully managed through litter of the legume plant species T. purpuria. (c) When C. procera and A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus worked together, they were most effective at supporting beta-glucosidase and dehydrogenase (d) Alkaline phosphatase and (e) acid phosphatase was more responsive to T. purpurea-A. terreus complexes than were T. purpurea-A. flavus and C. procera-A. terreus complexes.
How to Cite
Indian arid region, Plant Litter, Aspergillus, soil enzymes, soil quality index
Basak, B., & Dey, A. (2016) Bioremediation approaches for recalcitrant pollutants: potentiality, successes and limitation. In: Ashok KR, Vindo KD, Editors. Toxicity and Waste Management Using Bioremediation. IGI Global Engineer Science, Series Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies. Hershey PA, USA. 178-197.
Bogati, K., & Walczak, M. (2022) The Impact of Drought Stress on Soil Microbial Community, Enzyme Activities and Plants. Agronomy, 12, 189. https://doi.org/10.3390/ agronomy12010189
Buscardo, E., Souza, R.C., Meir, P., Gemi, J., Schmidt, S.K., da Costa, A.C.L. & Nagy, L. (2021). Effects of natural and experimental drought on soil fungi and biogeochemistry in an Amazon rain forest. Communications Earth and Environment 2, 55.
Cao, C., Jian, D., Teng, X., Jiang, Y., Liang, W., & Cui, Z. (2008) Soil chemical and mircrobiogical properties along a chronsequence of Caragana microphylla Lam. Plantations in the Horqin sandy land of northeast china. Applied Soil Ecology, 40, 78-85.
Caravaca, F., Alguacil, M.M., Torres, P., & Roldan, A. (2005) Plant type mediates rhizospheric microbial activities and soil aggregation in a semiarid Mediterranean salt marsh. Geoderma, 124, 375-382.
Cherubin, M.R., Karlen, D.L., Cerri, C.E.P., Franco, A.L.C., Tormena, C.A., & Davies, C.A. (2016) Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil. PLoS ONE, 11(3), 1-26.
Douglas, L.A., & Bremner, J.M. (1970b). Colorimetric determination of microgram quantities of urea. Analytical Letters, 3,79-87.
Douglas, L.A., & Bremner, J.M. (1970a). Extraction and colorimetric determination or urea in soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceeding: Soil Science, 859-862.
Eivazi, F., & Tabatabai, M.A. (1977) Phosphatases in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 9, 167-172.
Eivazi, F., & Tabatabai, M.A. (1988) Glucosidases and glactosidases in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20(5), 601-606.
Fang, S., Liu, D., Tian, Y., Deng, S., & Shang, X. (2013) Tree Species Composition Influences Enzyme Activities and Microbial Biomass in the Rhizosphere: A Rhizobox Approach. PLoS ONE, 8(4),1-11
Frankenberger, JrW.T., & Tabatabai, M.A. (1980) Amidase activity in soils: Method of Assay. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44, 282-287.
Gaur, D., Jain, P.K., & Bajpai, V. (2012). Production of extracellular α amylase by thermophilic Bacillus sp. isolated from arid and semi-arid region of the Rajasthan, India. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 2(5), 675-684.
Guo X.M., Tong-qian, Z., Wen-ke, C., Chun-yan, X., & Yu-xiao, H. (2018) Evaluating the effect of coal mining subsidence on the agricultural soil quality using principal component analysis. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 78(2),173-182.
Hammar, O., Harper, D.A.T., & Ryan. P.D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologica Electronica, 4 (1), 9pp.
Jagadish, C.T., Subhash, C.M., & Shyam, K. (2001) Influence of straw size on activity and biomass of soil microorganisms during decomposition. European Journal of Soil Biology, 37,157–160.
Laishram, J., Saxcena, K.G., Maikhuri, R.K., & Rao, K.S. (2012). Soil quality and soil health: a review. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 38(1), 19-37.
Laliberte, E., & Legendre, P. (2010) A distance-based framework for measuring functional diversity from multiple traits. Ecology, 9(1), 299-305.
Laura, M.L., Sinsabaugh, R.L., Collins, S.L., & Thomey, M.L. (2015) Soil enzyme responses to varying rainfall regimes in chihuahuan desert soils. Ecosphere, 6(3), 40.1-10
Liu, Y., Yang, H., Li, X., & Xing, Z. (2014) Effects of biological soil crust on soil enzymes activities in revegetated areas of the tengger desert, China. Applied Soil Ecology, 80, 6-14.
Luo, L., Meng, H., & Gu, J. (2018). Microbial extracellular enzymes in biogeochemical cycling of ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Management, 175:539-549.
Maharjan, M., Sanaullah, M., Razavi, B.S., & Kuzykov, Y. (2017). Effect of land use and management practices on microbial biomass and enzyme activities in subtropical top-and sub-soils. Applied Soil Ecology, 113:22-28.
Mathur, M. (2005). Ecology and prospecting of some medicinal plants of aphrodisiac potential. Ph.D. thesis. Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.
Mathur, M. (2020). Comportments of arid grazing land plant diversity: a temporal assessment with bottom-up and top-down factors. Range Management and Agroforestry, 41 (2), 200-208.
Mathur, M., & Pandey, C.B. (2016). Vegetation ecology of hot arid and semi arid grazing lands of India. In: Gaur M, Pandey CB, Goyal RK (eds) Remote sensing for natural resources monitoring and management. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 213–242
Mathur, M., & Sundaramoorthy, S. (2009). Mineral Composition in Corchorus depressus at hHeterogeneous environmental conditions and their relationships with bottom-up, top-down, and plant metabolite factors. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 40(13), 2028-2043.
Mathur, M., Suthar, M.S., Gehlot, P., & Sundaramoorthy, S.S. (2019) Assessment of litter availability and its quality plasticity of four wild species of the Indian arid environment. Tropical Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42965-019-00034-z
Mathur. M., & Sundaramoorthy, S. (2018) Appraisal of arid land status: a holistic assessment pertains to bio-physical indicators and ecosystem values. Ecological Processes, 7(41), 1-15.
Oseni, O.A. (2011) Production of microbial protease from selected soil fungal isolates. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology, 23, 28-34.
Pajares, S., Gallardo, J.F., Masciandaro, G., Ceccanti, B., & Etchevers, J.D. 2(011) Enzyme activity as an indicator of soil quality changes in degraded cultivated acrisols in the Mexican trans-volcanic belt. Land Degradation and Development, 22, 373-381.
Ren, Q., Song, H., Yuan, Z., Ni, X., & Li, C. (2018). Changes in soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass after re-vegetation in the three gorges reservoir, China. Forests, 9, 249:
Samuel, A. D., Brejea, R., Domuta, C., Bungau, S., Cenusa, N., & Tit, D. M. (2017). Enzymatic indicators of soil quality. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 18(3), 871-878.
StatSoft, Inc. (2011) STATISTICA (Data Analysis Software System), Version 10.http://www.statsoft.com
Stursova, M., & Sinsabaugh, R.L. (2008). Stabilization of oxidative enzymes in desert soil may limit organic matter accumulation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 550-553.
Tabatabai. M. A. (1982) Soil enzymes In: Page A.L., Miller R.H., Keeney D.R. (eds.): Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison.
Tarafdar, J.C., Yadav, R.S, & Niwas, R. (2002). Relative efficiency of fungal intra-and extracellular phosphatases and phytase. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Sciences, 165, 17-19.
Utobo, E.B., & Tewari, L. (2015). Soil enzymes as bio-indicators of soil ecosystem status. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 13(1), 147-169.
Veeraragavan, S., Duraisamy, R., & Mani, S. (2018) Seasonal variation of soil enzyme activities in relation to nutrient and carbon cycling in Senna alata (L.) Roxb invaded sites of Puducherry region, India. Geology Ecology and Landscapes, 2(3), 155-168.
Venu, N., Reddy, S.V., & Reddy, M. (2016). Estimation of soil enzyme activity with respect to decomposition of leaf litter types. Biolife, 4 (1), 155-163.
Xiang, Y., An, S., Cheng, M., Liu, L., & Xie, Y. (2018). Changes of soil microbiology properties during grass litter decomposition in loess hilly region, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15, 1797.
XLSTAT. 2017. Data Analysis and Statistical Solution for Microsoft Excel, Addinsoft, Paris, France.
Yang, R., Tang, J., Chen, X., & Hu, S. (2007) Effects of coexisting plant species on soil microbes and soil enzymes in metal lead contaminated soils. Applied Soil Ecology, 37, 240-246.
Zhang, S., Li, J., Yang, X., & Sun, B. (2015a). Effects of soil management regimes on biochemical properties of loess soil. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrtion, 15(3), 711-725.
Zhang, Y.L., Chen, L.J., Chen, X.H., Tan, M.L., Duan, Z.H., & Wu, Z. J. (2015b). Response of soil enzyme activity to long-term restoration of desertified land. Catena, 33, 64-70.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.