Main Article Content

Abstract

Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus) wintering in north-western India remains for several months (October to March) and with due course they have become an inhabitant of a synanthropic site in Jorbeer, a livestock and other animal carcasses dumping and disposing site in the outskirts of Bikaner city of Rajasthan. The main purpose of this study was to isolate and identify E. coli from critically endangered Egyptian vultures through conventional and molecular methods along with determining their antibiotic resistance profile. Bacteriological analyses were conducted on 38 freshly voided fecal samples, leading to the isolation of E. coli in 30 samples which were identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. In the antibiogram study, out of 12 antibiotics two antibiotics namely norfloxacin and co-trimoxazole were highly effective against most (93.33%) of the isolates. Highest resistance was against cephotaxime (56.65%) followed by amoxyclav (43.33%). Antibiogram showed a moderate spread of E. coli strains showing antibiotic resistance among Egyptian vultures at Jorbeer, Bikaner.

Keywords

Antibiotic resistance Bacteria Egyptian vultures Escherichia coli Rajasthan 16S rRNA

Article Details

How to Cite
Panwar, K., Bhati, T., Ritod, S. ., & Shringi, B. N. . (2022). Detection of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from Egyptian vultures from arid regions of India. Environment Conservation Journal, 23(1&2), 65–71. https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.021800-2115

References

  1. Adzitey, F. (2015). Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from beef and its related samples in Techiman municipality of Ghana. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 9(5): 233-240.
  2. Akond, M.A., Alam, S., Hassan, S.M.R., & Shirin, M. (2009). Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry and poultry environment of Bangladesh. International Journal of food safety, 11, 19-23.
  3. Aksoy, A., Yildirim, M., Kaçmaz, B., Apan, T.Z., & Göçmen, J.S. (2007). Verotoxin production in strains of Escherichia coli isolated from cattle and sheep, and their resistance to antibiotics. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 31(4), 225-231.
  4. Alcalá, L., Carla, A.A., Carmen, S., Chabier, G.E., Jesús, O., Antonio R., Carmelo, O., & Carmen, T. (2016). Wild Birds, Frequent Carriers of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Escherichia coli of CTX-M and SHV-12 Types. Microbial Ecology, 72(4), 861-869.
  5. Allen, S.E., Boerlin, P., Janecko, N., Lumsden, J.S., Barker, I.K., Pearl, D.L., & Jardine, C. (2011). Antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli isolates from wild small mammals living in swine farm, residential, landfill, and natural environments in southern Ontario, Canada. Applied and environmental microbiology, 77(3), 882-888.
  6. Ammar, A.M., El-Hamid, M.I., Eid, S.E.A., & El Oksh, A.S. (2015). Insight into antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of emergent multidrug resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in Egypt: How closely related are they. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire, 166(9-10), 304-314.
  7. Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.M., Sherris, J.C., & Turck, M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45(4), 493-496.
  8. Blanco, G., Alexandra, J., David, S., José, B., & Dolores, B. (2016). Wildlife contamination with fluoroquinolones from livestock: Widespread occurrence of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in vultures. Chemosphere, 144, 1536-43.
  9. Borges, C.A., Beraldo, L.G., Maluta, R.P., Cardozo, M.V., Guth, B.E.C., Rigobelo, E.C., & de Avila, F.A. (2012). Shiga toxigenic and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in the Faeces and carcasses of slaughtered pigs. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 9(12), 1119-1125.
  10. Chen, W., & Kuo, T. (1993). A simple and rapid method for the preparation of Gram negative bacterial genomic DNA. Nucleic Acids Research, 21(9), 2260.
  11. CLSI, (2013). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Third informational Supplement (M100-S23). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Pennsylvania, USA. pp: 72-81.
  12. Costa, D., Poeta, P., Sáenz, Y., Vinué, L., Coelho, A.C., Matos, M., & Torres, C. (2008). Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates recovered from wild animals. Microbial Drug Resistance, 14(1), 71-77.
  13. Cunha, M.P., de Oliveira, M.G., de Oliveira, M.C., da Silva, K.C., Gomes, C.R., Moreno, A.M., & Knöbl, T. (2014). Virulence profiles, phylogenetic background, and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from turkeys with airs acculitis. The Scientific World Journal, 289024. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/289024
  14. Cuthbert, R., Green, R.E., Ranade, S., Saravanan, S., Pain, D.J., Prakash, V., & Cunningham, A.A. (2006). Rapid population declines of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and red-headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) in India. Animal Conservation, 9(3), 349–354.
  15. De Pontes, P.S., Coutinho, S.D.A., de Oliveira Iovine, R., Cunha, M.P.V., Knöbl, T., & de Carvalho, V.M. (2018). Survey on pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in captive cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 49 Suppl(Suppl 1), 76-82.
  16. Edward, P.R., & Ewing, W.H. (1986). Identification of Enterobacteriaceae. (4th edn.), pp. 1-107. Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Inc., New York.
  17. Flammer, K. (2006). Antibiotic Drug Selection in Companion Birds. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 15(3), 166-176.
  18. Fluckey, W.M., Loneragan, G.H., Warner, R., & Brashears, M.M. (2007). Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Salmonella and Escherichia coli Isolates from Cattle Feces, Hides, and Carcasses. Journal of Food Protection, 70(3), 551–556.
  19. Ganguly, N.K., Arora N.K., Sujith, J.C., Mohamed, N.F., Gill, J.P.S., Gupta, U., Shah, H., Sadhna, J., Joshi, P.C., Kakkar, M., Kotwani, A., Rattan, A., Sudarshan, H., Kurien, T., Chand, W., Alice E., & Ramanan, L. (2011). Rationalizing antibiotic use to limit antibiotic resistance in India Indian Journal of Medical Research, 134(3), 281-294.
  20. Gyles, C.L. (2008). Antimicrobial resistance in selected bacteria from poultry. Animal Health Research Reviews, 9(2), 149-158.
  21. Horn, R.V., William, M., Cardoso, E., Lopes, S., Régis, S.C., Teixeira, Á. H., Albuquerque, R.C., Rocha-e-Silva, D.N., Machado, W., & Bezerra, G.A. (2015). Identification and antimicrobial resistance of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from canaries (Serinus canaria) Pesquisa Veterinary Brasileira, 35(6): 552-556.
  22. Hubalek, Z. (2004). An annotated checklist of pathogenic microorganisms. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 40, 639–659.
  23. Islam, S., Md, M.H.N., Md, A. S., Samina, I., Md, A.I., Saifur, R., Md Abdul, K., Hossam, M., and Md, Tanvir, R. (2021). Virulence Determinants and Multidrug Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Migratory Birds. Antibiotics, 10:190.
  24. Kang, H.Y., Jeong, Y.S., Oh, J.Y., Tae, S.H., Choi, C.H., Moon, D.C., & Lee, J.C. (2004). Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons found in Escherichia coli isolates from humans and animals in Korea. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 55(5): 639-644.
  25. Kabali, E., Pandey, G.S., Musso, M., Kapila, P., Mukubesa, A.N.,bNdebe, J., Muma, J.B., Mubita, C., Muleya, W., Elizabeth, M., …et al (2021). Identification of Escherichia coli and Related Enterobacteriaceae and Examination of Their Phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns: A Pilot Study at A Wildlife–Livestock Interface in Lusaka, Zambia. Antibiotics, 10, 238.
  26. Kaper, J.B., Nataro, J.P., & Mobley, H.L. (2004). Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2(2): 123.
  27. Kar, D., Bandyopadhyay, S., Bhattacharyya, D., Samanta, I., Mahanti, A., Nanda, P.K., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2015). Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of multidrug resistant extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from poultry and cattle in Odisha, India. Infection Genetics and Evolution, 29, 82-90.
  28. Kelsey, R.H., Scott, G.I., Porter, D.E., Thompson, B., & Webster, L. (2003). Using multiple antibiotic resistance and land use characteristics to determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 81, 337–348.
  29. Kibret, M., & Abera, B. (2011). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli from clinical sources in northeast Ethiopia. African Health Sciences, 11(1): 40-45.
  30. Khaled, A., Razik, E.I., Abdel, R., Youssef, F., Alaa, M., & Hazem, A. (2010). Direct identification of major pathogen of bubaline subclinical mastitis in Egypt using PCR. American journal of Science, 6(10), 652-660.
  31. Krumperman, P.H. (1983). Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of Escherichia coli to identify high-risk sources of fecal contamination of foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 46, 165-170.
  32. Matin, M.A., Islam, M.A., & Khatun, M.M. (2017). Prevalence of colibacillosis in chickens in greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. Veterinary world, 10 (1): 29
  33. Miles, T.D., McLaughlin, W., & Brown, P.D. (2006). Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens and humans. BMC Veterinary Research, 2(7):1-9.
  34. Quinn, P.J., Carter, M.E., Markey, B.K., & Carter, G.R. (1994). Wolfe Publishing, Mosby-Year Book Europe Ltd. Lynton House, 7-12. Tavistock Square, London WCH 9LB, England. Clinical Veterinary Microbiology.
  35. Saidi, B., Mafirakureva, P., & Mbanga, J. (2012). Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from chickens with colibacillosis in and around Harare, Zimbabwe. Avian diseases, 57(1), 152-154.
  36. Salehi T.Z., Safarchi, A., Peighambari, S.M., Mahzounieh, M., & Rabbani Khorasgani, M. (2007). Detection of stx1, stx2, eae, espB and hly genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Veterinary Research, 62, 37-42.
  37. Salehi, T.Z., & Bonab, S.F. (2006). Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli strains isolated from chickens with colisepticemia in Tabriz province, Iran. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5(7), 677-684.
  38. Sarker, Md. S., Md. Shahriar, M., Md. Younus, A., Md. Bayzid, A.A., & Zamila, B.B. (2019). Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from broilers sold at live bird markets in Chattogram, Bangladesh. Journal of Advance Veterinary and Animal Research, 6(3), 272–277.
  39. Sharada, R.S., & Thiyageeswaran, R.M. (2008). Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Poultry In Bangalore. The Internenational Journal of Microbiology, 7(1).
  40. Shrestha, E.K., Dhakal, I.P., Sapkota, M., Manandhar, P., & Rijal, T.B. (2011). Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolates from chicken and human samples in Chitwan. Nepalese Veterinary Journal, 38.
  41. Simões, R.R., Poirel, L., Da Costa, P.M., & Nordmann, P. (2010). Seagulls and beaches as reservoirs for multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 110.
  42. Szmolka, A., & Nagy, B. (2013). Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health. Frontiers in Microbiology, 4, 258.