Main Article Content


Plant species composition according to their functional types, distribution pattern are crucial for biodiversity conservation in tropical deciduous forest. The study assessed the woody plant species diversity, stand structure and population density in the secondary deciduous forest of Chandaka wildlife sanctuary, Odisha, India. A total of 70 species belonging to 63 genera and families were documented in this study.The stem density was found to be 1080 stems/ha with reverse J-shaped population structure indicating good regeneration potential of the forests. Shannon diversity Index varied from 0 to 2.31 whereas Simpson's index varied from 0 to 0.85. The correlation study between Importance Value Index and basal area were significant (p=40.63). The present study would be helpful for conservation and management of biodiversity in secondary dry deciduous forests of Chandaka Wildlife Sanctury in particular and tropical dry forests in general. 


Plant functional type Species diversity Importance Value Index Population Density Diversity indices Secondary forest

Article Details

Author Biographies

Rajendra Kumar Behera, School of Life Sciences, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Odisha, India

Associate Professor

School of Life Sciences, Sambalpur University

Sudam Charan Sahu, Department of Botany, Maharaja Sriram Chandra Bhanja Deo University, Baripada, Odisha, India

Assitant Professor

Department of Botany

North Orissa University, Baripada, Odisha

Nabin Kumar Dhal, Environment and Sustainability Department, CSIR- Institute of Mineral and Material Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Chief Scientist

Department of Environment and Sustainability

CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar

How to Cite
Pattnayak, S., Behera, R. K., Sahu, S. C. ., & Dhal, N. K. (2021). Assessment of woody plant species composition in secondary deciduous forests of Odisha, India. Environment Conservation Journal, 22(3), 327–339.


  1. Adekunle, V. A. J., Olagoke, A. O., & Ogundare, L. F. (2013). Logging impacts in tropical lowland humid forest on tree species diversity and environmental conservation. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 11(3), 491-511. DOI:
  2. Biswal AK, Thatoi HN & Sahu D. (2005). Floral diversity in Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 29(2): 385-394.
  3. Chazdon, R. L., & Guariguata, M. R. (2016). Natural regeneration as a tool for large?scale forest restoration in the tropics: prospects and challenges. Biotropica, 48(6), 716-730. DOI:
  4. Chheng, K., Saski, N., Mizoue, N., Khorn, S., Kao, D., & Lowe, A. (2016). Assessment of carbon stock of semi-evergreen forests in Cambodia. Global Ecology and Conservation, 5, 34-47. DOI:
  5. Chittibabu, C.V., & Parthasarathy, N. (2000). Attenuated tree species diversity in human-impacted tropical evergreen forest sites at Kolli Hills, Eastern Ghats, Indian. Biodiversity and Conservation, 9(11), 1493-1519. DOI:
  6. Dar, J.A., & Sundarapandian, S. (2016). Patterns of plant diversity in seven temperate forest types of Western Himalaya, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 9 (3), 280-292. DOI:
  7. Djuikouo, M.N.K., Doucet, J.L., Nguembou, C.K., Lewis, S.L., & Sonke, B. (2010). Diversity and aboveground biomass in three tropical forest types in the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon. African Journal of Ecology, 48(4),1053–1063. DOI:
  8. FAO. 2020. Global forest resources Assessment 2020-key findings. Rome
  9. Gairola, S., Sharma, C.M., Ghildiyal, S.K., & Suyal, S. (2012).Chemical properties of soils concerning forest composition in moist temperate valley slopes of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The Environmentalist, 32,512-523. DOI:
  10. Haripriya, G.S. (2000). Estimates of biomass in Indian forests. Biomass and Bioenergy, 19(250), 245?258. DOI:
  11. Huang, W., Pohjonen, V., Johansson, S., Nashanda, M., Katigula, M. I. L., & Luukkanen, O. (2003). Species diversity, forest structure and species composition in Tanzanian tropical forests. Forest ecology and management, 173(1-3), 11-24. DOI:
  12. Intergovernmental panel on climate change (2007). Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry. Cambridge, University Press, Cambridge.
  13. Joshi, R.K., Dhyani, S., Biomass, carbon density and diversity of tree species in tropical dry deciduous forests in Central India, Acta Ecol. Sin. 39 (4) (2019) 289–299. DOI:
  14. Kalaba, F.K., Quinn, C.H., Dougill, A.J., & Vinya, R. (2013). “Floristic composition, species diversity and carbon storage in charcoal and agriculture fallows and management implications in Miombo woodlands of Zambia.” Forest Ecology and Management, 304, 99-109. DOI:
  15. Kunwar, R.M., & Sharma, S.P. (2004).Quantitative analysis of tree species in two community forests of Dolpha district, mid-west Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Sciences, 2(3),23-28. DOI:
  16. Lalfakawma, Sahoo,U.K., Roy, S., Vanlalhriatpuia, K., & Vanalalhluna, P.C. (2009). Community composition and tree population structure in undisturbed and disturbed tropical semi-evergreen forest stand of North-East India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research ,7, 303-318. DOI:
  17. Lazos?Chavero, E., Zinda, J., Bennett?Curry, A., Balvanera, P., Bloomfield, G., Lindell, C., & Negra, C. (2016). Stakeholders and tropical reforestation: challenges, trade?offs, and strategies in dynamic environments. Biotropica, 48(6), 900-914. DOI:
  18. Majumdar, K., Shankar, U., & Datta, B. K. (2014). Trends in tree diversity and stand structure during restoration: a case study in fragmented moist deciduous forest ecosystems of Northeast India. Journal of Ecosystems, ,1-10. DOI:
  19. Mohanta, M. R., Mohanta, A., Mohapatra, U., Mohanty, R. C., & Sahu, S. C. (2020). Carbon stock assessment and its relation with tree biodiversity in Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India. Tropical Ecology, 61(4), 497-508. DOI:
  20. Mueller-Dombois, D., & Ellenberg, H. (1974). Aims and methods of vegetation ecology, John Wiley and Sons, New York. 45-66.
  21. Naidu, M.T., & Kumar, O.A. (2016). Tree diversity, stand structure, and community composition of tropical forests in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 9(3),328-334. DOI:
  22. Ndah, N. R., Andrew, E. E., & Bechem, E. (2013). Species composition, diversity and distribution in a disturbed Takamanda Rainforest, South West, Cameroon. African Journal of Plant Science, 7(12), 577-585. DOI:
  23. Padalia, H., Chauhan, N., Porwal, M.C., & Roy, P.S. (2004). Phytosociological observations on tree species diversity of Andaman Islands, India. Current Science, 87, 799-806.
  24. Panda, D.K., Kumar, A.,Ghosh, S., Mohanty, R.K. (2013). Stream flow trends in the Mahanadi River basin (India): Linkages to tropical climate variability. Journal of Hydrology, 495, 135-149. DOI:
  25. Pearson, T. R., Brown, S., Murray, L., & Sidman, G. (2017). Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source. Carbon balance and management, 12(1), 1-11. DOI:
  26. Pielou, E. C. (1966). Species-diversity and pattern-diversity in the study of ecological succession. Journal of theoretical biology, 10(2), 370-383. DOI:
  27. Purvis, A., & Hector, A. (2000). Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature, 405(6783), 212-219. DOI:
  28. Raturi, G. P. (2012). Forest community structure along an altitudinal gradient of district Rudraprayag of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Ecologia, 2(3),76-84. DOI:
  29. Reddy, C. S., Babar, S., Amarnath, G., & Pattanaik, C. (2011). Structure and floristic composition of tree stand in tropical forest in the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India.Journal of Forest Research, 22(4), 491-500. DOI:
  30. Sahoo, T., Panda, P. C., & Acharya, L. (2017). Structure, composition and diversity of tree species in tropical moist deciduous forests of Eastern India: a case study of Nayagarh Forest Division, Odisha. Journal of Forestry Research, 28(6), 1219-1230. DOI:
  31. Sahu, S.C., Dhal, N.K., Reddy, C.S., Pattanaik, C., & Brahmam, M. (2007). Phytosociological study of tropical dry deciduous forest of Boudh district, Orissa, India. Research Journal of forestry, 1(2), 66-72. DOI:
  32. Sahu, S.C., Dhal, N.K.,& Mohanty, R.C. (2012). Tree species diversity and soil nutrient status in a tropical sacred forest ecosystem on Niyamgiri hill range, Eastern Ghats, India. Tropical Ecology, 53,163-168. DOI:
  33. Sathish, B. N., Viswanath, S., Kushalappa, C. G., Jagadish, M. R., & Ganeshaiah, K. N. (2013). Comparative assessment of floristic structure, diversity and regeneration status of tropical rain forests of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 5(1), 157-164. DOI:
  34. Saxena, H.O., & Brahmam, M. (1994-1996). The flora of Orissa, vol. I-IV. Regional Research laboratory (CSIR), Bhubaneswar, and Orissa Forest Development Corporation Ltd. Bhubaneswar.
  35. Sharma, N., & Raina, A.K. (2013). Composition, structure and diversity of tree species along an elevational gradient in Jammu province of north-western Himalayas, Jammu, and Kashmir. Indian Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 3(10),12-23.
  36. Tauro, A., Gómez-Baggethun, E., García-Frapolli, E., Chavero, E. L., & Balvanera, P.(2018). Unraveling heterogeneity in the importance of ecosystem services. Ecology and Society, 23(4). DOI:
  37. Tripathi, K.P., & Singh, B. (2009). Species diversity and vegetation structure across various strata in natural and plantation forests in Katerniaghat wildlife sanctuary, North India.Tropical Ecology, 50(1), 191-200.
  38. Whittaker, R.H., & Likens, G.E.(1975). The biosphere and man. In Primary productivity of the biosphere. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.305-328. DOI: