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In rural areas of developing countries, where about 40 % of all people live, the household stove accounts for more of all national fuel combustion occur under cooking pots. The present study was undertaken in Hisar district of Haryana state to assess the indoor air pollution level as per the energy ladder and its effect on respiratory health. The study was conducted in the rural villages of Hisar district and rural women who were using traditional chullah were selected as the sample of the study. Results revealed that most of the women were using chullah for cooking their own food and hara for animal feed with fuel placed on the lower rung of energy ladder i.e. crop waste and dung cakes, wood, kerosene, and LPG. Major health problems faced by women were ‘headache’ and ‘irritation in eyes’ while using the traditional chullah and hara. The majority of them were also having respiratory problems like ‘phlegm’ (mean score-2.7) ‘shortness of breath’ (mean score-2.6), ‘cough’ (mean score-2.5), and ‘wheezing’ (attacks) with mean score of 2.0, respectively. Mean PEFR values for the traditional chullah and hara exposed women were significantly lower as compared with MDV chullah and improved hara. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of cheap improved chullah and hara are the best alternative, which is the permanent solution of smoke and also consumes less fuel than traditional chullah and hara.


Chullah Energy Health Indoor air Pollution

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How to Cite
Bala, A. ., Singh, K. ., Chauhan, K., & Mehta, M. . (2022). Assessing the indoor air pollution level as per energy ladder and its effect on respiratory health. Environment Conservation Journal, 23(1&2), 8–14.


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