Chemical characterization and antibacterial efficacy of Saudi sesame oil against human pathogenic bacteria


Saeed Alshahrani
Aseel Abid Al Sreaya
Mohammad Yahya Mashyakhi
Saad Alqahtani
Sivagurunathan Moni Sivakumar
Hassan Ahmed Alhazmi
Ziaur Rehman


Bacterial infection and its resistance is a major health issue that affects millions of people throughout the world. There is always a need to search forth new and safest drug from natural resources to fight these challenges. Sesame seed essential oil is a rich source of protein with high medicinal value since the ancient time peoples are using for several remedies in Saudi Arabia.Therefore, the current study is aimed to discover the potential activity of the locally available sesame oil for antibacterial action based on ethnobotanical knowledge and traditional utilization as a therapeutic agent to treat several kinds of health problem in Saudi culture. Gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of sesame essential oil extracted from locally available sesame seeds represented 39 different chemical compounds. Sesamin and sesamol were the principal components alongwith fatty acids and triglycerides. Results indicated that the locally available sesame oil was found rich in sesamin contents (24.45%). The spectrum of antibacterial effect of sesame seed essential oil was exhibited significantly against Escherichia coli followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The results indicate that sesame oil was found most effective against three bacteria i.e. E. coli, S. aureus and S. pyogenes.


How to Cite
Alshahrani, S. ., Al Sreaya, A. A. ., Mashyakhi, M. Y. ., Alqahtani, S. ., Sivakumar, S. M. ., Alhazmi, H. A. ., Rehman, Z. ., & Alam, F. . (2020). Chemical characterization and antibacterial efficacy of Saudi sesame oil against human pathogenic bacteria. Environment Conservation Journal, 21(1&2), 19-29.


  1. Ahmed, T., Shittu, L.A.J., Bankole, Shittu, R.K., Adesanya, O.A., Bankole, M.N., Ashiru, O.A., 2009. Comparative studies of the crude extracts of sesame against some common pathogenic microorganisms. Scientific Research and Essays, 4(6): 584-589.
  2. Alam, M.F., Safhi, M.M., Moni, S.S., Jabeen, A., 2016. In Vitro Antibacterial Spectrum of Sodium Selenite against Selected Human Pathogenic Bacterial Strains. Scientifica, 2016: 1-4. DOI:
  3. Al-Attar, A.M., Elnaggar, M.H.R., Almalki, E.A., 2017. Protective effect of some plant oils on diazinon induced hepatorenal toxicity in male rats. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24(6): 1162-1171. DOI:
  4. Al-Turki, T.A., Al-Namazi, A. A., Masrahi, Y.S., 2019. Conservation of genetic resources for five traditional crops from Jazan, SW Saudi Arabia, at the KACST Gene-Bank. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 26:1626-1632. DOI:
  5. Bawazir, A.M.A., Shantaram, M., 2018. Effect Of Yemeni Sesame Oil Against Some Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, 9(6): 2507-2512.
  6. Cappauccino JG, Sherman N. 2014. Microbiology - A laboratory manual, 10th edition, Pearson Education.
  7. Carlsson, A.S., Chanana, N.P., Gudu, S., Suh, M.C., Were, B.A., 2008. Sesame. In: Kole C, et al., (Eds.) Compendium of transgenic crop plant- Transgenic oilseed crops. Texas, USA: Wiley Blackwell, pp.227-246. DOI:
  8. Cohen, M.L., 1992. Epidemiology of drug resistance: implications for a post antimicrobial era. Science, 257(5073):1050-1055. DOI:
  9. Deme, P., Narasimhulu, C.A., Parthasarathy, S., 2018. Identification and evaluation of anti-Inflammatory properties of aqueous components extracted from sesame (Sesamum indicum) oil. Journal of Chromatography B Analytical Technology and Biomedical Life Science, 1087-1088: 61-69, 2018. DOI:
  10. Dilika, F., Bremner, P.D., Meyer, J.J., 2000. Antibacterial activity of linoleic and oleic acids isolated from Helichry sumpedunculatum: a plant used during circumcision rites, Fitoterapia, 71(4):450-4522. DOI:
  11. Farag, R.S., Daw, Z.Y., Hewedi, F.M., El-Baroty, G.S.A., 1989. Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian spice essential oils. Journal of Food Product 52(9):665-667. DOI:
  12. Kate, A.E., Lohani, U.C., Pandey, J.P., Shahi. N.C., Sharkar, A., 2014. Traditional and mechanical method of the oil extraction from wild apricot kernel: A comparative study. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environmental Science, 2(2): 54-60.
  13. Koshak, A.E., 2019. Prevalence of herbal medicines in patients with chronic allergic disorders in Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 40(4): 391-396. DOI:
  14. Mahendra, K.C., Sridevi, A.S., 2015. Bioactive lignans from sesame (Sesamumindicum L.): evaluation of their antioxidant and antibacterial effects for food applications. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(5): 2934-2941. DOI:
  15. Majdalawieh, A.F., and Mansour, Z.R., 2019. Sesamol, a major lignan in sesame seeds (Sesamumsindicum): Anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action. European Journal of Pharmacology, 855: 75-89. DOI:
  16. Mekky, R.H., Abdel-Sattar, E., Segura-Carretero, A., Contreras, M.D.M., 2019. Phenolic Compounds from Sesame Cake and Antioxidant Activity: A New Insight for Agri-Food Residues' Significance for Sustainable Development. Foods, 8(10):432. DOI:
  17. Moni, S.S., Alam, M.F., Safhi, M.M., Jabeen, A., Sanobar, S., Siddiqui, R., Moochikkal, R., 2018. Potency of nano-antibacterial formulation from Sargassumbinderi against selected human pathogenic bacteria. Brazilain Journal of Pharmceutical Sciences, 54(4): 1-9. DOI:
  18. Narasimhulu, C.A., Riad, A., Parthasarathy, S., 2018. Sesame Oil and an Aqueous Extract Derived from Sesame Oil Enhance Regression of Preexisting Atherosclerotic Lesions in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice. Journal of Medicine and Food, 21(7): 641-646. DOI:
  19. Nascimento, G.F., Locatelli, J., Freitas, P.C., Silva,G.L., 2000. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic resistant bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 31(4): 247-256. DOI:
  20. Olaleye, O.O., Kukwa, R.E., Eke, M.O., Aondo,T.O., 2018. Extraction, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Characterization of Oil from Sesame Seed. Asian Food Science Journal, 1(4): 1-12. DOI:
  21. Özcan, M.M., Al-Juhaimi, F., 2015. Effect of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed extract on stability of olive oil. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(2): 1218-1222. DOI:
  22. Ruankham, W., Suwanjang, W., Wongchitrat, P., Prachayasittikul, V., Prachayasittikul S., Phopin, K. 2019. Sesamin and sesamol attenuate H2O2q-induced oxidative stress on human neuronal cells via the SIRT1-SIRT3-FOXO3a signaling pathway. Nutritional Neuroscience, 30:1-12. DOI:
  23. Shittu, L.A.J., Bankole, M.A., Ahmed, T., Bankole, M.N., Shittu, R.K., Saalu, C.L., Ashiru, O.A., (2007a). Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils of Crude Extracts of Sesame Radiatum against Some Common Pathogenic Microorganisms. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 6:165-170.
  24. USP Sesame oil 2015, The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Interim Revision Announcement, USP (2015). 1-2.
  25. Uzun, B., Arslan, C., Furat, S., 2008. Variation in fatty acid compositions, oil content, and oil yield in germplasm
  26. collection of sesame (Sesamumindicum L). Journal of American Oil Chemical Society, 85(12):1135–1142.
  27. Valgas, C., De Souza, S.M., Smânia, E.F.A., Smania Jr, A., 2007. Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Brazillian Journal of Microbiology, 38: 369-380. DOI:
  28. Wen Fan, Jing Zeng, Yunfeng Xu., 2020. Atheoretical discussion of the possibility and possible mechanisms of using sesame oil for prevention of 2019-nCoV (Wuhan coronavirus) from the perspective of colloid and interface science Preprint Research Gate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.31786.98248
  29. Were, B.A., Onkware, A.O., Gudu, S., Welander, M., Carlsson, A.S., 2006b. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in East African sesame (Sesamumindicum L.) accessions evaluated over 3 years. Field Crops research, 97(2-3):254-260. DOI:
  30. Zowawi, H.M., 2016. Antimicrobial resistance in Saudi Arabia. An urgent call for an immediate action.Saudi Medical Journal, 37(9): 935-940. DOI:

Most read articles by the same author(s)