Main Article Content


Indicator organism, sometimes called bio indicator are plant or animal species known to be either particularly tolerant or particularly sensitive to pollution. The health of an organism can often be associated with a specific type or intensity of pollution and its presence can then be used to indicate polluted conditions relative to un-impact conditions tubificid worm are an example of organism that can indicates pollution tubificid worm live in the bottom sediment of streams and lakes and they are highly tolerant of pulp and paper mill. In a river polluted by waste water discharge from pulp and paper plant, it is common to see a large increase in the number of tubificid worm in stream sediments immediately downstream.



bio-indicator in-impact condition potential indicator feasible

Article Details

How to Cite
Singh, M. . (2015). Effect of pulp and paper mill effluent on tubificid worm. Environment Conservation Journal, 16(1&2), 149–152.


  1. APHA 1998.Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water 24th Ed. Washington DC.
  2. Bajpai, M. and R. Kumar.2008. Nature of Alkins pulp and paper mill effluent of Kanpur district (U.P.).SCITECH, 3 (2): 60-62.
  3. Brinkhurst, R.O. 1966. The tubificide (Oligochacta) of polluted water, Int. Verei.Theo. and Limno.Verno.,Verha, 16: 854-859.
  4. Campbell, R.C. 1974. Statistics of biologists, Cambridge Univ. Press, London.
  5. Edmondson, W.T. ed 1993. Ward and Whipple’s Fresh water Hellawell, J.M. 1986. Biological indicators of fresh water pollution and environment management, Elsevier, London
  6. Pennak, R.W. 1989. Fish invertebrates of the U.S. Protozoa to mollusca John Wily & Sons INC.