Main Article Content


Antibiotics are knownas the first option for treating any disease. While, the difficultyin terms of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic residue as well as antibiotic impactmisapplicationon health of the public, results in numerous limitations on unregulated antibiotic treatmentworldwide within the dairy industry.Scientistslooked into new healing strategies that could be used to replace antibiotic use in mastitis disease treatment. Bovine mastitis causing a direct impact on food safety issues andthe farm’s profitability. This pathology’s treatments and preventionsarespecially performed using antimicrobials, However, this disease's pathogens' increasing antimicrobial resistance may have an impact on the customary drug’s effectiveness.Moreover, the environment andthe presence of antimicrobial residues in milk are a probabledangerin terms of human health. As a result, the utilizationof plant extracts could become a hopeful alternativefor bovine mastitis prevention.Antibacterial properties are included in numerous plants. Plants extracts are usually considered secure for animals, humans, and the environment. This analysis contains the common issues that came across in the customary Mastitis Treatment, includingthe potential uses of plant extracts as substitutes for the control of these pathogens, as well as the constraints of using these plant derivatives.


Antibacterial Antibiotic antibiotic resistance California mastitis test (CMT) somatic cell veterinary

Article Details

How to Cite
Ankita, Raturi, S., & Tyagi, M. (2023). Herbal treatment as an alternative to antibiotics for bovine mastitis in the system of obtaining environmentally safe milk . Environment Conservation Journal, 24(4), 335–343.


  1. Akin, I., Akin, T., (2018). Economic impact of digital dermatitis treatment on a dairy farm: an application of the break-even analysis. Cienc. Rural. 48, e20170791. DOI:
  2. Alemu LA, Melese AY, Gulelat DH (2013). Effect of endogenous factors on proximate composition of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fillet from lake zeway. American Journal of Research Communication. 1(11):405-10.
  3. Bajpai, V.K., Sharma, A., Baek, K.H., (2013). Antibacterial mode of action of Cudraniatricuspidata fruit essential oil, affecting membrane permeability and surface characteristics of food-borne pathogens. Food Control 32, 582–590. DOI:
  4. Baquero, F., (2011). The 2010 Garrod lecture: the dimensions of evolution in antibiotic resistance: ex unibusplurum et ex pluribus unum. J. Antimicrob. Chemothe. 66, 1659–1672. DOI:
  5. Barkema, H.W., Schukken, Y.H. and Zadoks, R.N. (2006) Invited review: The role of cow, pathogen, and treatment regimen in the therapeutic success of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. 89: 1877–1895 DOI:
  6. Benites NR, Guerra JL, Melville PA, Da Costa EO (2002). Aetiology and histopathology of bovine mastitis of espontaneous occurrence. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series B.Oct;49(8):366-70. DOI:
  7. Blowey, R., Edmondson, P., (2010). Mastitis Control in Dairy Herds, second ed. Cabi, Wallingford. DOI:
  8. Boor, K.J., (2001). Fluid dairy product quality and safety: looking to the future. J. Dairy Sci. 84, 1–11. DOI:
  9. Calzolari, A., J.A. Giraudo, H. Rampone, L. Odierno and A.T. Giraudo et al., (1997). Field trials of a vaccine against bovine mastitis. 2. Evaluation in two commercial dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 854-858. DOI:
  10. Chang, B.S., J.S. Moon, H.M. Kang, Y.I. Kim and H.K. Lee et al., (2008). Protective effects of recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant vaccine against experimental bovine infection by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Vaccine, 26: 2081-2091. DOI:
  11. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, (2006). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Sixteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S16. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
  12. Côté-Gravel, J., and Malouin, F., (2019). Symposium review: Features of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis pathogenesis that guide vaccine development strategies, Journal of dairy science, 102, 4727-4740 DOI:
  13. De Vliegher, S., L.K. Fox, S. Piepers, S. McDougall and H.W. Barkema, (2012). Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: Nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention and control. J. Dairy Sci., 95: 1025-1040. DOI:
  14. Fontaine, M.C., J. Perez-Casal, X.M. Song, J. Shelford, P.J. Willson and A.A. Potter, (2002). Immunisation of dairy cattle with recombinant Streptococcus uberis GapC or a chimeric CAMP antigen confers protection against heterologous bacterial challenge. Vaccine, 20: 2278-2286 DOI:
  15. Foutz, C.A., Godden, S.M., Bender, J.B., Diez-Gonzalez, F., Akhtar, M., Vatulin, A., (2018). Exposure to antimicrobials through the milk diet or systemic therapy is associated with a transient increase in antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 101, 10126–10141. DOI:
  16. Freitas, C.H., Mendes, J.F., Villarreal, P.V., Santos, P.R., Gonçalves, C.L., Gonzales, H.L., Nascente, P.S., (2018). Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of bacteria causing bovine mastitis from dairy farms in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Braz. J. Biol. 78, 661–666. DOI:
  17. Ghaderi, A., Ebrahimi, B., (2015). Soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of extracted oil from Pistaciaatlanticakurdica nuts and optimization of process using factorial design of experiments. Sci. J. Analyt. Chem. 3, 122–126. DOI:
  18. Gouvea FD, Rosenthal A, Ferreira EH (2007). Plant extract and essential oils added as antimicrobials to cheeses: a review. Ciência Rural. Jun 22;47. DOI:
  19. Halasa T, Huijps K, Østerås O, Hogeveen H (2007). Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review. Veterinary quarterly.Jan 1;29(1):18-31. DOI:
  20. Hogeveen, H., Huijps, K., Lam, T.J.G.M., (2011). Economic aspects of mastitis: new developments. N. Z. Vet. J. 59, 16–23. DOI:
  21. Holm H (2004). Gorenstein homological dimensions. Journal of pure and applied algebra. May 1;189(1-3):167-93. DOI:
  22. Huijps K, Lam TJ, Hogeveen H (2008). Costs of mastitis: facts and perception. Journal of Dairy Research.Feb;75(1):113-20. DOI:
  23. Juhász-Kaszanyitzky, É., Jánosi, S., Somogyi, P., Dán, Á., Bloois, L., Duijkeren, E., Wagenaar, J.A., (2007). MRSA transmission between cows and humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13, 630–632. DOI:
  24. Käppeli, N., Morach, M., Corti, S., Eicher, C., Stephan, R., Johler, S., (2019). Staphylococcus aureus related to bovine mastitis in Switzerland: clonal diversity, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial resistance of isolates collected throughout (2017). J. Dairy Sci. 102, 3274–3281 DOI:
  25. Keast, D.R., Fulgoni, V.L.I.I.I., Nicklas, T.A., O’Neil, C.E., (2013). Food sources of energy and nutrients among children in the United States: National Health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2006. Nutrients 5, 283–301. DOI:
  26. Kher, M.N., Sheth, N.R., Bhatt, V.D., (2018). In vitro antibacterial evaluation of Terminalia chebula as an alternative of antibiotics against bovine subclinical mastitis. Anim. Biotechnol. 1–8. DOI:
  27. Kumar, A., A. Rahal, S.K. Dwivedi and M.K. Gupta, (2010). Bacterial prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile from bovine mastitis in Mathura, India. Egypt. J. Dairy Sci., 38: 31-34
  28. Kumar, R., Yadav, B.R. and Singh, R.S. (2011) Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic Sahiwal cattle. J. Bio. Sci. 36: 175-188 DOI:
  29. Macías-Sánchez, M.D., Mantell, C., Rodríguez, M., de la Ossa, E.M., Lubián, L.M., Montero, O., (2009). Comparison of supercritical fluid and ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids and chlorophyll a from Dunaliellasalina. Talanta 77, 948–952. DOI:
  30. Maragathavalli S, Brindha S, Kaviyarasi NS (2012). Antimicrobial activity in leaf extract of Neem (Azadirachtaindicalinn.). International journal of science and nature. 3(1): 110–3.
  31. Marques, V.F., da Motta, C.C., Soares, B., Melo, D.A., Coelho, S., Coelho, I., Barbosa, H.S., Souza, M.M.S., (2017). Biofilm production and beta-lactamic resistance in Brazilian Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis. Braz. J. Microbiol. 48, 118–124. DOI:
  32. Merrill, C., Ensermu, D., Abdi, R., Gillespie, B., Vaughn, J., Headrick, S., Hash, K., Walker, T., Stone, E., and Dego, O.K., (2019). Immunological responses and evaluation of the protection in dairy cows vaccinated with staphylococcal surface proteins, Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 214, 109890 DOI:
  33. Montironi, I.D., Cariddi, L.N., Reinoso, E.B., (2016). Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Minthostachysverticillata essential oil and limonene against Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. Rev. Argent. Microbiol. 48, 210–216 DOI:
  34. Mubarack HM, Doss A, Dhanabalan R, Venkataswamy R (2011). Activity of some selected medicinal plant extracts against bovine mastitis pathogens. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. Jan 1;10(6):738-41. DOI:
  35. Nielsen, C., (2009). Economic impact of mastitis in dairy cows. Ph.D. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
  36. O’Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A., Fulgoni III, V.L., (2018). Food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit with a focus on milk and other dairy foods in children 2 to 18 years of age: national health and nutrition examination survey, 2011–2014. Nutrients 10, 1–37 DOI:
  37. Olde Riekerink, R.G.M., I. Ohnstad, B. van Santen and H.W. Barkema, (2012). Effect of an automated dipping and backflushing system on somatic cell counts. J. Dairy Sci., 95: 4931-4938. DOI:
  38. Pandey, A., Tripathi, S., (2014). Concept of standardization, extraction and pre phytochemical screening strategies for herbal drug. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 2, 115–119.
  39. Paz, J.E.W., Contreras, C.R., Munguía, A.R., Aguilar, C.N., Inungaray, M.L.C., (2018). Phenolic content and antibacterial activity of extracts of Hamelia patens obtained by different extraction methods. Braz. J. Microbiol. 49, 656–661. DOI:
  40. Peton, V., Le Loir, Y., (2014). Staphylococcus aureus in veterinary medicine. Infect. Genet. Evol. 21, 602–615. DOI:
  41. Petrovski KR, Trajcev M, Buneski G (2006). A review of the factors affecting the costs of bovine mastitis. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. Jun 1;77(2):52-60. DOI:
  42. Quann, E.E., Fulgori III, V.L., Auestad, N., (2015). Consuming the daily recommended amounts of dairy products would reduce the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in the United States: diet modeling study based on NHANES 2007–2010. Nutr. J. 14, 1–11. DOI:
  43. Quinn, P.J. Carter, M.E. Markey, B. K. and Carter, G. R. (2002): Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Diseases, Bacterial Causes of Bovine Mastitis, 8th Edition, Mosby International Limited, London, pp. 465 475.
  44. Sadek, K., Saleh, E., Ayoub, M., (2016). Selective, reliable blood and milk bio-markers for diagnosing clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 49, 431–437. DOI:
  45. Saei, H.D., (2012). Coa types and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cases of bovine mastitis. Comp. Clin. Path. 21, 301–307. DOI:
  46. Schepers JA, Dijkhuizen AA (1991). The economics of mastitis and mastitis control in dairy cattle: a critical analysis of estimates published since 1970. Preventive Veterinary Medicine.Mar 1;10(3):213-24. DOI:
  47. Scholte, C.M., (2019). Antibiotic Alternatives for Treatment of Mastitis in Dairy Cattle
  48. Scott, P.R., Penny, C.D., Macrae, A.I., (2011). Cattle Medicine, first ed. Manson Publishing Ltd, London, pp. 216–218. DOI:
  49. Sharun, K., Dhama, K., Tiwari, R., Gugjoo, M.B., Iqbal Yatoo, M., Patel, S.K., Pathak, M., Karthik, K., Khurana, S.K., Singh, R., Puvvala, B., Amarpal, Singh, R., Singh, K.P., and Chaicumpa, W., (2021). Advances in therapeutic and managemental approaches of bovine mastitis: A comprehensive review, Veterinary Quarterly, 1-58 DOI:
  50. Shkreta, L., B.G. Talbot, M.S. Diarra and P. Lacasse, (2004). Immune responses to a DNA/protein vaccination strategy against Staphylococcus aureus induced mastitis in dairy cows. Vaccine, 23: 114-126. DOI:
  51. Tan, M.C., Tan, C.P., Ho, C.W., (2013). Effects of extraction solvent system, time and temperature on total phenolic content of henna (Lawsoniainermis) stems. Int. Food Res. J. 20, 3117–3123.
  52. Tian L (2005). Inferences on the common coefficient of variation. Statistics in medicine. Jul 30;24(14):2213-20. DOI:
  53. Tian, M., Xu, X., Liu, F., Fan, X., Pan, S., (2018). Untargeted metabolomics reveals predominant alterations in primary metabolites of broccoli sprouts in response to preharvest selenium treatment. Food Res. Int. 111, 205–211. DOI:
  54. Türkyılmaz, S., Tekbıyık, S., Oryasin, E., Bozdogan, B., (2010). Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk. Zoonoses Public Health 57, 197–203. DOI:
  55. Wellenberg GJ, van der Poel WH, Van Oirschot JT (2002). Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review. Veterinary microbiology.Aug 2;88(1):27-45. DOI:
  56. Yen, H.-W., Yang, S.-C., Chen, C.-H., Jesisca, Chang, J.-S., (2015). Supercritical fluid extraction of valuable compounds from microalgal biomass. Bioresour. Technol. 184, 291–296. DOI:
  57. Yin, R.L., C. Li, Z.T. Yang, Y.J. Zhang and W.L. Bai et al., (2009). Construction and immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine containing clumping factor A of Staphylococcus aureus and bovine IL18. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 132: 270-274. DOI: