Main Article Content


Indoor aerosol PM 2.5 is more harmful due to its penetration deep into lungs most ofpeoplespendingmore than 90% of their time indoor. The present study is the first timeinvestigation to evaluate the indoor aerosols (PM 2.5) in the households located in residential, commercial and industrial sub urban areas Jammu District (J&K) during different seasons of the two year study period (2017-2019). The indoor PM 2.5 was observed to exhibit deceasing trend i.e. more in summer> winter >rainy season. In non-wood fuel burning households exhibited annual average indoor PM 2.5 values below the values prescribed by CPCB and wood fuel burning households exhibited values above the values prescribed by CPCB. Moreover the indoor aerosols (PM 2.5 ) was observed be to almost four times higher in wood fuel burning households as compared with that of non-wood fuel burning households.


Indoor aerosols Indoor PM 2.5 Air quality Seasonal variations

Article Details

How to Cite
Nishu. (2023). Assessment of seasonal variations in the fine particulate matter of indoor air in sub urban area of Jammu District (J&K), India . Environment Conservation Journal, 24(2), 380–386.


  1. Abbey, D.E., Ostro B.E., Petersen, F. & Burchette, R.J. (1995). Chronic respiratory symptoms associated with estimated long-term ambient concentrations of fine particulates less than 2.5 microns. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 5(2):137–159.
  2. Abdullahia, K.L. Delgado-Saborita, J.M. & Harrisona, R.M. (2013). Emissions and indoor concentrations of particulate matter and its specific chemical components from cooking: A review. Atmospheric Environment 71 :260-294. DOI:
  3. Ahamad, F. Bhutiani, R. & Ruhela, M. (2022). Environmental Quality Monitoring Using Environmental Quality Indices (EQI), Geographic Information System (GIS), and Remote Sensing: A Review. GIScience for the Sustainable Management of Water Resources, 331. (Chapter number-18, pp.331-348, ISBN ebook: 9781003284512). DOI:
  4. Ampitan, T.A. & Olyerind, O.V. (2015). Pattern of domestic energy utilization and its effect on the environment in Nigeria. Research Journal of Agriculture and Environment Management,4:432-437.
  5. Bhutiani, R., Kulkarni, D. B., Khanna, D. R., Tyagi, V., & Ahamad, F. (2021). Spatial and seasonal variations in particulate matter and gaseous pollutants around integrated industrial estate (IIE), SIDCUL, Haridwar: a case study. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(10), 15619-15638. DOI:
  6. Chafe, Z A., Brauer, M., Klimont, Z., Dingenen, R V., Mehta, S., Rao, S., Riahi, K., Dentener, F. & Smith, K R.(2014). Household Cooking with Solid Fuels Contributes to Ambient PM2.5 Air Pollution and the Burden of Disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 122 (12):1314-1320. DOI:
  7. Cheng, B. & Wang-Li, L.(2019). Spatial and temporal variations of PM 2.5 in North Carolina. Aerosol and Air Quality Research,19: 698–710. DOI:
  8. Cohen, A J., Anderson, H R., Ostro, B., Pandey, K D., Krzyzanowski, K., Kunzli, N., Gutschmidt, K., Pope, C A., Romieu, I., Samet, J M. & Smith, K R. (2004). Mortality aspects of Urban air pollution. in: Ezzati M ,Rodgers,A.D.,Lopez,A.D. and Murray,,C.J.L. eds. Comparative quantification of health risks. Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major factors. Geneva,World Health Organization, 2(17):1353–1433.
  9. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2010a). Some non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures. Lyons, IARC Monographs on the evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 92.
  10. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2010b). Household use of solid fuels and high-temperature frying. Lyons, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 95.
  11. Jiang, R. & Bell, M. L. (2008). A comparison of Particulate Matter from Biomass- Burning Rural and Non-Biomass-Burning Urban Households in North Eastern China. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116 (7): 907-914. DOI:
  12. Kamath & Lokeshappa. (2014).Air Quality indexing for selected areas in Bangalore city,Karnataka state, India. International Journal of Innovative research in Science Engineering and Technology,3(8):2319-8753
  13. Lighty, J S., Veranth, J M. & Sarofim, A F. (2000). Combustion aerosols: factors governing their size and composition and implications to human health. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 50(9): 1565–1622. DOI:
  14. Lim, S S. (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet, 380: 2224-2260.
  15. Lin L, He, X C., Wu, J P., Yu, P G. & Guo, T T. ( 2014 ). Research of Shanghai cooking fume pollution. Environmental Science & Technology, 37(120): 546–549.
  16. Mac Kinnon, M., Zhu, S., Carreras-Sospedra, M., Soukup, J. V., Dabdub, D., Samuelsen, G. S., & Brouwer, J. (2019). Considering future regional air quality impacts of the transportation sector. Energy Policy, 124, 63–80. DOI:
  17. Morowska, L. (1999). Indoor Air Health Risk Assessment and Management. Encyclopedia of Environmental Pollution and Clean up – I, A. Wiley Interscience Pub. New York.
  18. Moschandreas, D.J., Zabransky, Jr. & Rector, H.E. (1980). The Effects of Wood Burning on the Indoor Residential Air Quality, Environment International 4: 463-468. DOI:
  19. Ojo, K D., Soneja, S I., Scrafford, C G., Khatry, S K., LeClerq, Steven C., Checkley, W., Katz, J., Breysse P N. & Tielsch. J M.(2015). Indoor Particulate Matter Concentration, Water Boiling Time, and Fuel Use of Selected Alternative Cookstoves in a Home-Like Setting in Rural Nepal. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 12: 7558-7581. DOI:
  20. Patel, S., Li, J., Pandey, A., Pervez, S., Chakrabarty, R K. & Biswas, P. (2017).Spatio-temporal measurement of indoor particulate matter concentrations using a wireless network of low-cost sensors in households using solid fuels. Environmental Research. 152:59–65. DOI:
  21. Robinson A L, Subramanian R, Donahue N M, Bernardo-Bricker, A. & Rogge, W F (2006). Source apportionment of molecular markers and organic aerosol. 3. Food cooking emissions. Environmental Science & Technology, 40(24): 7820–7827. DOI:
  22. Romieu, I., Meneses, F., Ruiz, S., Sienra, J J., Huerta, J., White, M C. & Etzel, R A.(1996). Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children living in Mexico City. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 154(2): 300–307. DOI:
  23. Ruhela, M., Sharma, K., Bhutiani, R., Chandniha, S. K., Kumar, V., Tyagi, K., ... & Tyagi, I. (2022). GIS-based impact assessment and spatial distribution of air and water pollutants in mining area. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-15. DOI:
  24. Ruhela, M., Maheshwari, V., Ahamad, F., & Kamboj, V. (2022). Air quality assessment of Jaipur city Rajasthan after the COVID-19 lockdown. Spatial Information Research, 30(5), 597-605. DOI:
  25. Shrestha, I.L. & Shrestha, S.L. (2005).Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels and respiratory health of the exposed population in Nepalese Households. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 11(2):150-160. DOI:
  26. Shukla, S.P. & Sharma, M. (2008) Source apportionment of atmospheric PM 10 in Kanpur, India. Environmental Engineering Science,25:849–861. doi: 10.1089/ees. 2006.0275. DOI:
  27. Singh, A. (2016). A study of ambient air quality of Yamuna Nagar city in Haryana. Biological Forum,8(2):392-396.
  28. Smith, K.R. (2000) National burden of disease in India from indoor air pollution.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97(24):13286-13293. DOI:
  29. Zheng, M., Cass, G.R., Schauer, J.J. & Edgerton, E.S. (2002). Source apportionment of PM2.5 in the Southeastern United States using solvent-extractable organic compounds as tracers. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(11): 2361–2371. DOI: