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A field experiment to diversify the rice‒wheat system to increase employment and income was conducted during 2017-18 at the research farm of CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Palampur with eight cropping systems that were replicated four times. One-year results revealed that the highest rice grain yield (16477 kg/ha), net returns (₹ 219828/ha) and marginal returns (₹80946) were recorded from the rice – palak – cucumber sequence. Okra – radish – onion resulted in maximum food availability (55.16 kg/ha/day), whereas employment generation was maximum from rice – lettuce – potato + coriander (102.91%). In terms of carbohydrate yield (5146 kg/ha), protein yield (640.6 kg/ha) and energy equivalent (23919 MJ/ha), it was highest from the rice – wheat sequence; however, in the case of carbohydrate and energy equivalent, it was on par with rice – lettuce – potato + coriander.



Carbohydrate and protein yield Employment generation Food availability Income Marginal returns

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How to Cite
Mandial, A., Negi, S. C., Kaur, P., & Kaur, N. (2023). Performance of different rice-based cropping systems in the wet temperate zone of Himachal Pradesh. Environment Conservation Journal, 24(4), 248–253.


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