Main Article Content


The current study demonstrates the influence of conventional and organic nutrient management practices on nitrogen use efficiency, growth, yield, and physiological and biochemical parameters in four rice varieties, namely, Jaiva, Ezhome 2, Jyothi and Uma. Growth parameters, grain yield per hill, and physiological and biochemical parameters were higher under conventional management for all rice varieties. Although the nitrogen use efficiency of each variety varied significantly with nutrient management practices, the variation was least in Jaiva (23.8%), which is the organic rice variety released by Kerala Agricultural University. The rice varieties Jaiva and Ezhome 2 showed consistency in the grain weight per panicle under both conventional (Jaiva- 4.57 g, Ezhome 2- 5.86 g) and organic (Jaiva, 4.24 g, Ezhome 2, 4.54 g) management. The soil nitrogen content at the tillering stage (0.66**) showed a significantly higher positive correlation with nitrogen use efficiency under organic management. The results of the study provide a better understanding of factors that can lead to a sustained yield in organic rice production in terms of nitrogen use efficiency.


Nitrogen Nitrogen use efficiency Organic farming Oryza sativa L. Rice

Article Details

How to Cite
Elizabeth Jose, KB, S., Alex, S., Pillai P., S., V.G., J., Stephen, R., A.G., K., & Dongare, M. D. (2023). Productivity and nitrogen use efficiency of rice under conventional and organic nutrition. Environment Conservation Journal, 24(4), 231–240.


  1. Ahmed, S., Humphreys, E., Salima, M. & Chauhan, BS. (2016). Growth, yield and nitrogen use efficiency of dry-seeded rice as influenced by nitrogen and seed rates in Bangladesh. Field Crops Research, 186:18-31. DOI:
  2. Bana, R.C., Gupta, A.K., Bana, R.S. Shivay, Y.S., Bamboriya, S.D., Thakur, N.P., Puniya, R., Gupta, M., Jakhar, S.R., Kailash, Choudhary, R.S., Bochalya, R.S., Bajaya, T., Kumar, V., Kumar, P. & Choudhary, A.K. (2022). Zinc-coated urea for enhanced zinc biofortification, nitrogen use efficiency and yield of basmati rice under typic fluvents. Sustainability, 14(1):104. DOI:
  3. Bradford, M.M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72: 248-254. DOI:
  4. Budhar, M.N. & Palaniappan, S.P. (1996). Effect of integration of fertilizer and green manure nitrogen on yield attributes, nitrogen uptake and yield of lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 176:183-187. DOI:
  5. Budhathoki, S., Amgain, L.P., Subedi, S., Iqbal, M., Shrestha, N. & Aryal, S. (2018). Assessing growth, productivity and profitability of drought tolerant rice using nutrient expert-rice and other precision fertilizer management practices in Lamjung, Nepal. Acta Scientific Agriculture, 2(8): 153-158.
  6. Chen, Y., Liu, Y., Dong, S., Liu, J., Wang, Y., Hussain, S., Wei, H., Huo, Z., Xu, K. & Dai, Q. (2022). Response of rice yield and grain quality to combined nitrogen application rate and planting density in saline area. Agriculture, 12:1788. DOI:
  7. Chivenge, P., Sharma, S., Bunquin, M.A. & Hellin, J. (2021). Improving nitrogen use efficiency-A key for sustainable rice production systems. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 5:737412-737422. DOI:
  8. Decouard, B., Bailly, M., Rigault, M., Marmagne, A., Arkoun, M., Soulay, F., Caïus, J., Paysant-Le Roux, C., Louahlia, S., Jacquard, C., Esmaeel, Q., Chardon, F., Masclaux-Daubresse, C. & Dellagi, A. (2022). Genotypic variation of nitrogen use efficiency and amino acid metabolism in Barley. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12:807798. DOI:
  9. Dobermann & Achim, R. (2005). Nitrogen Use Efficiency-State of the Art. Agronomy & Horticulture Faculty Publications. 316p.
  10. Fan, J.B., Zhang, Y.L., Turner, D., Duan, Y.H., Wang, D.S. & Shen, Q.R. (2010). Root physiological and morphological characteristics of two rice cultivars with different nitrogen-use efficiency. Pedosphere, 20: 446-455. DOI:
  11. Garnett, T., Conn, V. & Kaiser, B. N. (2009). Root based approaches to improving nitrogen use efficiency in plants. Plant, Cell and Environment, 32(9):1272-83. Epub DOI:
  12. Gopinath, P. P., Parsad, R., Joseph, B. & Adarsh, V. S. (2020). GRAPES: General Rshiny Based Analysis Platform Empowered by Statistics. home. version 1.0.0.
  13. Han, M., Okamoto, M., Beatty, P.H., Rothstein, S.J. & Good, A.G. (2015). The genetics of nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Annual Review of Genetics, 49(1): 269-289. DOI:
  14. Haque, M.M., Biswas, J.C., Islam, M.R., Islam, A. & Kabir, M.S. (2019). Effect of long-term chemical and organic fertilization on rice productivity, nutrient use-efficiency, and balance under a rice-fallow-rice system. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 42(20): 2901-2914. DOI:
  15. Hazra, K.K., Swain, D.K., Bohra, A., Singh, S.S., Kumar, N. & Nath, C.P. (2016). Organic rice: potential production strategies, challenges and prospects. Organic Agriculture, 8(1): 39-56. DOI:
  16. Hazra, K.K., Venkatesh, M.S., Ghosh, P.K., Ganeshamurthy, A.N., Kumar, N., Nadarajan, N. & Singh, A.B. (2014). Long-term effect of pulse crops inclusion on soil‒plant nutrient dynamics in puddled rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system on an inceptisol of indo-Gangetic plain zone of India. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 100(1): 95-110. DOI:
  17. Huang, L., Jun, Y.U., Jie, Y.A., Zhang, R., Yanchao, B.A., Chengming, S.U. & Zhuang, H. (2016). Relationships between yield, quality and nitrogen uptake and utilization of organically grown rice varieties. Pedosphere, 26(1):85-97. DOI:
  18. International Rice Research Institute (2002). Standard evaluation system for rice. 5th Ed. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.
  19. Inthavong, T., Fukai, S. & Tsubo M. (2011). Spatial variations in water availability, soil fertility and grain yield in rainfed lowland rice: A case study from savannakhet province, Lao PDR. Plant production Science, 14(2): 184-195. DOI:
  20. Iqbal, A., He, L., Khan, A., Wei, S., Akhtar, K., Ali, I., Ullah, S., Munsif, F., Zhao, Q. & Jiang L. (2019). Organic manure coupled with inorganic fertilizer: an approach for the sustainable production of rice by improving soil properties and nitrogen use efficiency. Agronomy, 9:651 DOI:
  21. Ismael, F., Ndayiragije, A. & Fangueiro, D. (2021). New fertilizer strategies combining manure and urea for improved rice growth in Mozambique. Agronomy, 11: 783. DOI:
  22. Jackson, M.L. (1973). Soil chemical analysis (2nd Ed). Prentice hall of India pvt. Ltd. Newdelhi, India. 498p.
  23. Kerala Agricultural University. (2016). Package of practices recommendations: Crops 15th edition. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur. 392p.
  25. Kerala Agricultural University. (2017). Package of practices recommendations (Organic) crops 2nd edition. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur. 328p.
  26. Kingori, G.G., Nyamori, A.J. & Khasungu, I.D. (2016). Improving seed potato leaf area index, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll accumulation efficiency through irrigation water, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient management. Journal of Agricultural Studies, DOI:
  27. Manickam, A. & Sadasivam, S. (1996). Biochemical methods, New age international (P) Limited, New Delhi. 272p.
  28. Manjunatha, G.A., Vanaja, T., Naik, J., Kumar, A.A. & Vasudevan, N.R. (2016). Identification of rice genotypes best suited for the development of organic varieties and identification of current varieties best suited for organic farming. Journal of Organics, 3(1):16-24.
  29. Martínez-Dalmau, J., Berbel, J. & Ordóñez-Fernández, R. (2021). Nitrogen fertilization. A review of the risks associated with the inefficiency of its use and policy responses. Sustainability. 13:5625. DOI:
  30. Otoole, J.C. & Bland, W.L. (1987). Genotypic variation in crop plant‒root systems. Advances in Agronomy, 41:91-145. DOI:
  31. Ponisio, L.C., M’Gonigle, L.K., Mace, K.C., Palomino, J., de Valpine, P. & Kremen, C. (2015). Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282: 20141396. DOI:
  32. Ruan, S., Luo, H., Wu, F., He, L., Lai, R. & Tang, X. (2023). Organic cultivation induced regulation in yield formation, grain quality attributes, and volatile organic compounds of fragrant rice. Food Chemistry, (405) (Part A): 134845. 45 DOI:
  33. Saleh, M.M., Salem, K.F.M. & Elabd, A.B. (2020). Definition of selection criterion using correlation and path coefficient analysis in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 44:143 DOI:
  34. Seufert, V., Ramankutty, N. & Foley, J.A. (2012). Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture. Nature, 485: 229-232. DOI:
  35. Torralbo, F., González-Moro, M.B., Baroja-Fernández, E., Aranjuelo, I. & González-Murua, C. (2019). Differential regulation of stomatal conductance as a strategy to cope with ammonium fertilizer under ambient versus elevated CO2. Frontiers of Plant Science, 10:597. DOI:
  36. Vanaja, T., Mammootty, K.P. & Govindan, M. (2013). Development of organic Indica rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L.) for the wetlands of Kerala, India through new concepts and strategies of crop improvement. Journal of Organic System, 8(2): 18-28.
  37. Vanaja, T., Neema, V.P., Mammootty, K.P., Balakrishnan, P.C. & Jayaprakash, N.B. (2017) A high yielding organic rice variety suited for coastal saline and nonsaline fields: ‘Ezhome-2’. Journal of Organics, 4(1): 21-28.
  38. Velmurugan, V.A. & Swarnam, T.P. (2013). Nitrogen release pattern from organic manures applied to an acid soil. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(6):174-184. DOI:
  39. Wang, Y., Mi, G.H., Chen, F.J., Zhang, J.H, & Zhang, F.S. (2005). Response of root morphology to nitrate supply and its contribution to nitrogen accumulation in Maize. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27: 2189-2202. DOI:
  40. Wild, P.L., van Kessel, C., Lundberg, J. & Linquist, B.A. (2011). Nitrogen availability from poultry litter and pelletized organic amendments for organic rice production. Agronomy Journal, 103(4): 1284-1291. DOI:
  41. Xin, Y., Ping, Y. Jue, L., Yujie, Z., Ye, S., Xiaotao, M., Jianqiu, C. & Haefele, S.M. (2022) Grain yield, plant nitrogen content and nitrogen use efficiency as affected by controlled-release urea and straw biochar in a rice field. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 45(9): 1393-1402. DOI:
  42. Yang, B., Xiong, Z., Wang, J., Xu, X., Huang, Q. & Shen, Q. (2015). Mitigating net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensities by substituting chemical nitrogen fertilizers with organic fertilization strategies in rice–wheat annual rotation systems in China: A 3-year field experiment. Ecological Engineering, 81: 289-297. DOI:
  43. Yemm, E. W., Cocking, E. C. & Ricketts, R. E. (1955). The determination of amino-acids with ninhydrin. Analyst, 80: 209-214. DOI: