Main Article Content


Water samples from 25 different stations along the Neeru stream and its tributaries / sub-tributaries has been collected and analysed for anions viz., Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate and Sulphate for two years (Jan 2014- Dec 2015) by using Ion chromatography with 3.2 mM sodium carbonate and 1 mM sodium bicarbonate as mobile phase and 50 mM solution of sulphuric acid as suppressor. The observed values of Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate and Sulphate were found to be in the range of BDL - 0.85, 0.11 - 9.88, 0.02 - 7.78, BDL - 0.39 and 0.26 - 9.56, respectively. Possible reasons for the fluctuations of these anions in the Neeru stream have also been discussed. All analysed anions have been found within WHO and BIS permissible limits.


Anions Bhaderwah Ion chromatography Neeru stream Water quality

Article Details

How to Cite
Kumar , . R. ., Sharma, N. ., & Raina, A. K. . (2018). Ion chromatography of major anions in the Neeru stream, Bhaderwah, J&K, India. Environment Conservation Journal, 19(3), 17–30.


  1. Acharjee, M. L., 2013. Diversity of Plankton and Ichthyofauna in relation to Limnochemistry of River Teesta and Relli in the Darjeeling Himalaya of West Bengal. Ph. D. Thesis submitted to the University of North Bengal, West Bengal, India.
  2. Arya, S., Gazal, S. and Raina, A. K., 2013. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in some endemically afflicted villages of district Doda, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 5(2): 406-410.
  3. Baba, D. I., Sharma, K. K. and Shvetambri, 2015. Physico-Chemical Assessment of River Chenab, Jammu And Kashmir. European journal of pharmaceutical and medical research, 2(4): 1048-1064.
  4. Barat, S. and Jha, P., 2002. Changes in the water quality and total coliform bacterial load in a streach of River Mahananda at Siliguri city, West Bengal, India. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, 4(4): 571-575.
  5. Bhadra, B., Mukherjee, S., Chakraborty, R. and Nanda, A. K., 2003. Physico-Chemical and bacteriological investigation on the river Torsa of North Bengal. Journal of Environmental Biology, 24: 125-133.
  6. BIS, 2012. Indian standard drinking water specifications. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, pp: 1-11.
  7. Bora, M. and Goswami, D. C., 2015. A study on seasonal and temporal variations in physico-chemical and hydrological characteristics of River Kolong at Nagaon Town, Assam, India. Archives of Applied Science Research, 7(5): 110-117.
  8. Bourasi, S. K., Singh, S. D., Patil, P., Parihar, S. S. and Taunk, A., 2016. Seasonal variation of physico-chemical parameters and diversity of Phytoplankton in river Narmada at Harda (M.P.). CIBTech Journal of Microbology, 5(1): 25-30.
  9. Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), 2010. Ministry of water resources; Ground water quality report of Jammu and Kashmir State. North western Himalayan Region.
  10. Chakraborty, D., 1998. A study on the water and sediment quality as well as macro population of a natural hill stream in the Darjeeling hill. Indian Journal of Environment and Ecoplanning, 1 (3): 69-72.
  11. Chakraborty, R. D., Roy, P. and Singh, S. B., 1959. A quantitative study of the plankton and the physico-chemical condition of the River Jamuna at Allahabad in 1954-55. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 6(1): 186-203.
  12. Chandan, R., Singh, M., Kulkarni, D. and Sohoni, V., 2017. Impact of Industrial Effluents on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of River Basanter Samba (J&K). International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 6(3): 3316-3322.
  13. Das, B. K., Boruah, P. and Kar, D., 2014. Study of seasonal variation of water quality of River Siang in Arunachal Pardesh, India. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 8(2): 11-20.
  14. Dhamodharan, A., Shanthakumar, S. and Ganapathy, G. P., 2016. Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality of Cooum River in Chennai, India – a statistical approach. Global NEST Journal, 18(3): 527-545.
  15. Dobriyal, A. K., Bahuguna, A. K., Kumar, N. and Kotnala, C. B., 1993. Ecology and seasonal diversity of planktons in a spring fed stream Khandagad in Garhwal Himalaya. In Singh, H.R. (Ed.) Advances in Limnology, Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi: 175 -180.
  16. Dutta, S. P. S., 2014. Monthly variations in physico-chemical characteristics of water, MPN index and zooplankton of Devak stream, at Shiv Temple Complex, Udhampur, Jammu (J&K), India. Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences 6(2): 816-824.
  17. Ebadati, N., 2017. Statistical Analysis of Dez River Water Quality, Southwest of Iran. Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, 1(1): 46-60.
  18. Gandhi, R. K., Sharma, N., and Raina, A. K., 2017. Ion Chromatographic analysis of heavy metals from a glacial fed cold water Himalayan stream, Bhaderwah, J&K, India. Environment Conservation Journal, 18(3): 157-165.
  19. Garizi, A. Z., Sheikh, V., and Sadoddin, A., 2011. Assessment of seasonal variations of chemical characteristics in surface water using multivariate statistical methods. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 8(3): 581-592.
  20. Gautam, A., 1990. Ecology and pollution of mountain waster’s, Ashish Publishing house, New Delhi.
  21. Giridharan, L., Venugopal, T. and Jayaprakash, M., 2009. Assessment of water quality using chemometric tools: A case study of River Cooum, South India. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 56 (4), 654–669.
  22. Hem, J. D., 1985. Study and Interpretation of the chemical characteristics of the Natural water. U. S. Geological Survey water supply-paper 2254, U. S. Geological Survey, Alexandria.
  23. Jarvie, H. P., Whitton, B. A. and Neal, C., 1998. Nitrogen and phosphorus in east coast British rivers: Speciation, sources, and biological significance. Science of the Total Environment, 210-211, 79–109.
  24. Jha, P. and Barat, S., 2003. Hydrobiological study of lake Mirik in Darjeeling Himalayas. Journal of Environmental Biology, 24(3): 339-344.
  25. Jhingran, V.G.F., 1982. Fish and Fisheries of India. 3rd Edition. Hindustan Publishing Corporation (India), Delhi.
  26. Karthikeyan, K., Nanthakumar, K., Velmurugan, P., Tamilarasi, S. and Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P., 2010. Prevalence of certain inorganic constituents in groundwater samples of Erode district, Tamilnadu, India, with special emphasis on fluoride, fluorosis and its remedial measures. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 160(1-4): 141-155.
  27. Khadse, G. K., Patni, P. M. and Labhasetwar, P. K., 2016. Water quality assessment of Chenab River and its tributaries in Jammu and Kashmir (India) based on WQI. Sustainable Water Resource Management, 2(2): 121-126.
  28. Khan, A. A. and Siddqui, A. Q., 1974. Seasonal change in the limnology of a perennial fish pond at Aligarh. Indian Journal of Fishery, 21: 463-478.
  29. Kumar, A. and Singh, A. K., 2002. Ecology, conservation and management of the River Mayurakshi in Santhal Pargana (Jharkhand state) with special reference to effect of sewage pollution on abiotic and biotic potentials. In: Ecology and Conservation and Management of lakes, reservoirs and rivers. Vol. I. (Ed. Arvind Kumar) ABD publishers, Jaipur (India): 1-42.
  30. Majumdar, S. and Dutta, T. K., 2014. Studies on seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters in Bankura segment of the Dwarakeshwar River (W.B.) India. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2(3): 877-881.
  31. Nouri, J., Khorasani, N., Lorestani, B., Karami, M., Hassani, A.H. and Yousefi, N., 2009. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and uptake by plant species with phytoremediation potential. Environmental Earth Sciences, 59 (2), 315-323.
  32. Nouri, J., Lorestani, B., Yousefi, N., Khorasani, N., Hasani, A. H., Seif, S. and Cheraghi, M., 2011. Phytoremediation potential of native plants grown in the vicinity of Ahangaran lead–zinc mine (Hamedan, Iran). Environmental Earth Sciences, 62(3), 639-644.
  33. Pandey J., Pandey Usha and Tyagi H.R., 2000. Nutrient Status and Cyanobacterial diversity of a tropical fresh water lake. Journal of Environmental Biology, 21(2), 133-138.
  34. Patel, T., Rathod, J., Lakhmapurkar, J. and Gavali, D., 2016. Assessment of Water Quality of Kim River, Gujarat, India. International Research Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(1): 41-49.
  35. Paudyal, R., Kang, S., Sharma, C. M.,, Tripathee L., Huang J., Rupakheti, D. and Sillanpaa M., 2016. Major ions and trace elements of two selected rivers near Everest region, southern Himalayas, Nepal. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75: 46.
  36. Rameez, and Srivastava, S., 2017. Assessment of Water Quality Parameters of Different Sites of River in Srinagar, (Kashmir) India. Archive of life Science and Environment, 1(1): 26-31.
  37. Seenayya, G., 1971. Ecological studies on the plankton of certain freshwater ponds of Hyderabad, (India). II. Phytoplankton. Hydrobiologia, 37: 55-88.
  38. Sekabira, K., Origa, H. O., Basamba, T. A., Mutumba, G. and Kakudidi, E., 2010. Heavy metal assessment and water quality values in urban stream and rain water. International Journal of Environmental Science and technology, 7(4): 759-770.
  39. Semwal, N. and Jangwan, J. S., 2009. Major ion chemistry of River Bhagirathi and River Kosi in the Uttrakhand Himalaya. International Journal of Chemical Sciences, 7(2): 607-616.
  40. Sharma, K. K., Gupta, K., Kouser, U. and Shvetambri., 2015a. Limnological Profile of a High Altitudinal Stream, Bishleri of Banihal Jammu and Kashmir, India. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 6(3): 3162-3167.
  41. Sharma, K. K., Singh, D. and Sharma, A., 2015b. Seasonal Variations in the Water Quality Parameters from Manawar Tawi River in Rajouri District of J&K, India. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 5(4): 759-763.
  42. Sharma K. K., Sharma A., Singh D. and Gupta S., 2015c. Impact of Pollutants on Water Quality of Basantar River with Reference to Physico-Chemical Parameters of District Samba (J&K), India. Golden Research Thoughts, 4(12): 1-11.
  43. Shekhar, C., 1990. Biology of Oreinus richardsonii (Gray and Hard) (From Neeru-Nallah in Bhaderwah) with a view to Formulation of species conservation plan. Ph. D. Thesis submitted to the University of Jammu, Jammu, J&K, India.
  44. Sivakumar, A. A. and Jaganathan, R., 2002. Hydrology and pollution of the river Bhavani, Tamil Nadu, India. In: Ecology and conservation of lakes, reservoirs and rivers. Vol I (Ed. Arvind Kumar) ABD publishers, Jaipur (India). : 114-131.
  45. Thapa, S., Yonzon, P. B. and Rai, A. K., 2010. Life of a river in the Himalaya: An ecological study of Trisuli River system in Nepal. Aquaculture Asia Magazine (Genetics and Biodiversity), 15(1): 37- 40.
  46. Thresh, J. K., Beale, J. F. and Suckling E.V., 1949. The examination of water and water supplies (Ed. E.W. Taylor). London.
  47. Vaishali, P. and Punita, P., 2013. Assessment of seasonal variation in water quality of River Mini, at Sindhrot, Vadodara. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 3(5): 1424-1436.
  48. Varekar, V., Karmakar, S., Jha, R. and Ghosh, N. C., 2015. Design of sampling locations for river water quality monitoring considering seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loads. Environment Monitoring and Assessment, 187: 376.
  49. Wang, X. L., Lu, Y. L., Han, J. Y., He, G. Z. and Wang, T. Y., 2007. Identification of anthropogenic influences on water quality of rivers in Taihu watershed. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 475–48.
  50. Wetzel, R. G., 2001. Limnology; Lake and River Ecosystems, (3rd edition). Academic Press, USA.
  51. WHO, 1999. Guidelines for drinking water quality. World Health Organisation, Geneva.
  52. WHO, 2004. Guideline for Drinking-water Quality. Geneva: volume 1, 3rd edition. World health Organization.