Main Article Content


Litopeneaus vannamei is the most preferable species for culture by shrimp producers due to short time crop, hardy species and high market value. Present investigation was carried out to comprehend the significance of the carbon and nitrogen ratio in shrimp farming systems at Ankola, Uttara Kannada (District) and Haleyangadi, Mangaluru (Taluk) and Dakshina kannada (District). The pond water characteristics namely temperature, pH, alkalinity, salinity, Dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, Ammonia, NO2, NO3, PO4, SiO3 were found to vary from 28 to 35°C, 6.9 to 9.4, 25 to 125 mg/l, 0 to 36 ppt, 0 to 4.20mg/l, 0.020 to 0.259mg/l, 1.63 to 81.24mg/l, 0.12 to 36.45μg at./l as micro-mole per liter, 0.09 to 11.12 μg at./l, 0.26 to 32.15μg at./1, 0.15 to 26.18μg at./l, 2.40 to 90.18μg at./l respectively. The pond soil characteristics comprising of pH, organic carbon were ranged from 6.5 to 8.6, 0.235 to 1.994%, respectively while texture comprising of sand content varied from 48.41 to 96.26%, clay 0.3 to 2.45% and silt 3.14 to 51.24%. C/N ratio is varied 1.084-11.450 during the research phase. The outcomes of the water quality parameters shown quite higher nutrient all selected ponds and Organic carbon showed high in all ponds along with day of culture that’s impact data on water quality and influence on pond biomass and the C/N ratio. A culture system's ability to produce more can be greatly increased by maintaining the quality of the soil and water by removing toxicity though nitrification and continuous monitoring.


Biological oxygen demand Carbon/Nitrogen ratio Dakshina kannada Litopeneaus vannamei Mangaluru

Article Details

How to Cite
H.S, P. J., & Naik A T, R. (2023). Water and soil studies in Shrimp aquaculture systems. Environment Conservation Journal, 24(3), 249–259.


  1. Akiyam, D. M. (1992). Future consideration for shrimp nutrition and the aquaculture feed industry. In: J. W yban (Ed.), Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Fanning. World Aquaculture Society, 198-205.
  2. APHA, 2005. Standard methods for examination of water and waste water. Standard Methods (19th ed.) 874.
  3. Araneda, M., Perez, E. P & Gasca, E. (2008). White shrimp Penaeus vannamei culture fresh water densities; condition state based on length and weight. Aquaculture, 283(1-4):13-18. DOI:
  4. Asaduzzaman, M., Rahman, M. M., Azim, M. E, Islam, M, A., Wahab, M. A., Verdegem, M. C. J., & Verreth, J. A. J. (2010). Effect of C/N ratio and substrate addition on natural food communities in freshwater prawn monoculture ponds. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 306:127-136. DOI:
  5. Avnimelech, Y. (1999). Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a control element in aquaculture systems. Aquaculture, 176:227–235. DOI:
  6. Avnimelech, Y., & Ritvo, G. (2003). Shrimp and Fish Pond Soils: Processes and Management. Aquaculture, 220:549-567. DOI:
  7. Banerjea, S.M. (1967). Water quality and soil condition of fish ponds in some states of India in relation to fish production. Indian J. Fish, 14: 113-144.
  8. Bhatnagar, A., & Pooja, D. (2019). Water quality guidelines for the management of pond fish culture, International Journal of Environmental Science, 5-2.
  9. Bhatnagar. A., Jana, S. N., Garg, S. K., Patra, B. C., Singh, G. & Barman, U. K. (2004). Water quality management in aquaculture, In: Course Manual of summer school on development of sustainable aquaculture technology in fresh and saline waters. Haryana Agricultural, Hisar (India), 203- 210.
  10. Boyd, C. E. (2003). Fertilizantes químicos na aqüicultura de viveiros. Revista da Associacao Criadores de Ca.marao, 5(3):79-81.
  11. Boyd, C.E. & FAST, A.W. (1992). Pond monitoring and management and Marine shrimp culture principles and practices. Elsevier the Netherlands, 862: 497-513. DOI:
  12. Boyd, C.E. & Munsiri, P., 1996. Phosphorus adsorption capacity and availability of added phosphorus in soils from aquaculture areas in Thailand. J. World Aquacul. Socie, 27: 160-167. DOI:
  13. Boyd, C.E., (2000). Pond bottom soil analyses. Global aquaculture advocate September. US., 92 pp.
  14. Bray, W.A. & Lawrence, A.L, (1993). The effect of four substrates on growth and survival of Penaeus vannamei at two salinities. Ciencias Marinas, 19: 229-244. DOI:
  15. Chakrapani, S., Akshaya, P., Jayashree, S., Mullaivanam, R., Sivakumar R.P. & Vinodh, K., (2020). Three different C: N ratios for Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei under practical conditions: Evaluation of growth performance, immune and metabolic pathways. Aquaculture Research, 1-12. DOI:
  16. Chakravarty, M. S., Ganesh, P. R. C., Amarnath, D., Shanthi, S. B., & Srinu, B. T. (2016). Spatial variation of water quality parameters of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture ponds at Narsapurapupeta, Kajuluru and Kaikavolu villages of East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, International Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Studies, 4(4): 390-395.
  17. Deng, M., Chen, J., Hou, J., Li, D. & He, X. (2018). The effect of different carbon sources on water quality, microbial community and structure of biofloc systems. Aquaculture, 482: 103-110. DOI:
  18. Duru, C. C., Daniel, U. I. & Ogbulie, J. N. (2018). Impacts of organic wastes on water quality of Woji Creek in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science Environmental Management, 22(5): 625-630. DOI:
  19. Hargreaves, J. A. (2006). Photosynthetic suspended-growth systems in aquaculture. Aquacult. Eng, 34: 344-363. DOI:
  20. Hari, B,, Madhusoodana, B. M., Johny, T., Varghese, J. W., Schrama. & Verdegem, M. C. J. (2006). The effect of carbohydrates addition on water quality and the nitrogen budget in extensive shrimp culture systems. Aquaculture, 252:248-263. DOI:
  21. Islam, M. S, Mustafa, K. A. H., Wahab, M. A. & Dewan, S. (2004). Water quality parameters of coastal shrimp farms from southwest and southeast regions of Bangladesh. Fisheries Resources, 8(1): 53-60.
  22. Jaganmohan, P. & Leela, K. C. H. (2018). Assessment of water quality in shrimp (L. vannamei) grow out ponds in selected villages of S.P.S.R Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 6:2394-0506.
  23. Krishnani, K. K., Gupta, B. P, Muralidhar, M., Saraswathy, R., Pillai, S. M., Ponnusamy, K. & Nagavel A. 2011. Soil and water characteristics of traditional paddy and shrimp fields of Kerala. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 58: 71-77.
  24. Kumar, S., Anand, P. S., De, D., Deo, A. D., Ghoshal, T. K, Sundaray, J. K. & Lalitha, N. (2017). Effects of biofloc under different carbon sources and protein levels on water quality, growth performance and immune responses in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1978). Aquaculture Research, 48(3): 1168-1182. DOI:
  25. Kunlapapuk, S., Saipattana, P., Limhang, K. and Kulabtong, S. (2021). Sediment accumulation rate and carbon burial rate in the pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) ponds, Phetchaburi Province, upper Gulf of Thailand. Int. J. Agri. Tech, 17(3): 929-940.
  26. Lazur, A. (2007). Good Aquacultural Practices Program: Grow out Pond and Water Quality Management. Joint institute for food safety and applied nutrition, University of Maryland. 17 pp
  27. Maia, E. P, Alfredo, O. G. & Silva, L. O. B. (2011). Brazilian shrimp farms for Litopenaeus vannamei with partial and total recirculation systems. International Journal of Aquatic Science, 2(1): 16-27.
  28. Meck, N. (1996). Pond water chemistry, San Diego, Koi Club, Http:// Revised on July 31, 1996.
  29. Muhammad, K. (2014). Soil Quality analysis of brackishwater shrimp farming in coastal areas of Takalar Regency - Indonesia. J. Env. Eco, 5(2): 22-30. DOI:
  30. Mustafa, A., Kamariah & Ratnawati, E. (2021). Soil quality and its implication for brackishwater pond soil management option in East Java Province, Indonesia. Marine Sci. Fish, 860: 20-37. DOI:
  31. Muthusamy., Pramod, K. P., Radhakrishnapillai, A., Alagarsamy, V., Vivekanand, B. & Chandra, S. P. (2016). Effect of different biofloc system on water quality, biofloccomposition and growth performance in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone,1931). Aquaculture Research, 47:3432–3444. DOI:
  32. Nasrin, I., Shahadat, H. & Abdul, B. (2016). Soil Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics Agricultural Soils of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. International Journal of Agriculture Bioscience Engineering, 1(1): 1-8.
  33. Natarajan, S. & Deivasigamani, B. (2017). Studies on Biosecured Shrimp Culture of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798). Aquaculture Research, 4(1):1031.
  34. Piedrahita, R. H. (2003). Reducing the Potential Environmental Impact of Tank Aquaculture Effluents through Intensification and Recirculation. Aquaculture, 226:35-44. DOI:
  35. Priyadarsani, L. & Abraham, T. J. (2016). Water and sediment quality characteristics of medium saline traditional shrimp culture system (Bheri). Journal of Fisheries, 4(1): 309-318. DOI:
  36. Rahman, M., Ariful, I., Amirul, I., Syed, A. H. & Uddin, A. (2017). Investigation of semi-intensive culture system of shrimp with special reference to soil-water characteristics of Bangladesh. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 5(2): 42-49 DOI:
  37. Roy, L. A., Davis, D. A., Saoud, I. P., Boyd, C. A., Pine, H. I. & Boyd, C. E. (2010). Shrimp culture in inland low salinity waters. Reviews in Aquaculture 2:191-208. DOI:
  38. Ryther, J. H. & Officer, C. B. (1981). Impact of nutrient enrichment on water uses. In: Estuaries and nutrients (ed. By B.j. Neilson and L.E. Cronin). DOI:
  39. Santhosh, B. & Singh, N. P. (2007), Guidelines for water quality management for fish culture in Tripura, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Center, 29.
  40. Schneider, O., Sereti, V. E. H. & Verreth, J. A. J. (2005). Analysis of nutrient flows in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. Aquaculture Engineering, 32:379-401. DOI:
  41. Vinothkumar, R., Aurag, S. &. Srinivasan, M., (2018). Analysis of bottom soil quality parameters of shrimp pond culture in modified extensive method. J. Emerging Tech. Innovative Res., 5:7-12.
  42. Wu, J. X., Timothy, C. M. & Tzachi, M. S. (2016). Effects of C/N ratio on biofloc development, water quality and performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in a biofloc-based, high-density, zero-exchange, outdoor tank system. Aquaculture, 453:169-175. DOI: