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In India, 80 per cent of the farmers are small and marginal farmers. They primarily depend on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood security. The rice-rice cropping system reduces farm income, declined soil fertility and other soil degradation problems. The farming system approach is a holistic tool to address the problems of mono-cropping through diversification that enhances farm income, production and employment. A field study was conducted during 2011–2018 to study the impact of the rice-based integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) for profitability, carbon emission and sustainability. Recycling of resources and residues led to higher productivity (58.9 %) and net profit (48.5 %) over the initial year by adopting rice-based ICLS. This system had a net profit of $ 3097/year and generated 776 man T days/ha/year employments. In ICLS, the recyclable farm waste material of 28.98 tons is converted into organic manures of 16.03 tons and saves the fertilizer’s cost of $ 504 per year. It can be a sustainable model with a sustainable yield index (0.11) of for wet situations with less carbon-emitting and profitable.


Agricultural enterprises carbon sequestration IFS livestock sustainability index

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How to Cite
O, K., A. H., K. N., L., R., & Goudra, S. (2023). The long-term impact of the integrated crop-livestock system on carbon emission, sustainability and livelihood security of small and medium farmers. Environment Conservation Journal, 24(3), 31–39.


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