Main Article Content


TiO2 nanoparticles are highly stable, eco-friendly in nature, having low cost, act as a photo catalyst also having antimicrobial properties. Considering the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on seeds, a study was conducted during March 2022 to June 2022 at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). In this study onion seeds of variety Nasik Red N-53 were collected to investigate the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the seedling characters as well as on the biochemical characters under storage in ambient conditions. Onion seeds were treated with different concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 ppm) along with control and stored in two containers; viz. tin container (C1) and aluminum foil pouch (C2). All the seedling parameters were evaluated every month during storage. The experiment was conducted in factorial CRD with 4 replications. The experimental result showed that the storage containers influenced the seedling characters of onion. Seeds stored in aluminum foil pouch (C2) exhibited highest germination per cent (52.93 %), speed of germination (3.76), root length (2.27 cm), shoot length (4.11 cm), seedling length (6.38 cm), fresh weight (0.176 gm), dry weight (0.0205 gm), seed density (1.025 gm/cm3), dehydrogenase activity (0.213 OD/g mL), catalase activity (0.0220 nmol/min/mg protein) and exhibited lowest moisture per cent (8.05 %) and lowest electrical conductivity (0.970 dS/m) as compared to tin container at the end of 3 months of storage. Seed treated with TiO2 nanoparticles @40ppm (T4) for 2 hours performed better in terms of seedling parameters; viz. germination per cent (58.5 %), speed of germination (4.20), root length (3.06 cm), shoot length (4.58 cm), seedling length (7.64 cm), fresh weight (0.222 gm), dry weight (0.0259 gm), seed density (1.056 gm/cm3), dehydrogenase activity (0.337 OD/g mL), catalase activity (0.0375 nmol/min/mg protein) and recorded lowest moisture per cent (8.04 %) and lowest electrical conductivity (0.951 dS/m) as compared to control after 3 months of storage. The study concluded that seed treated with TiO2 @40 ppm and stored in aluminum foil pouch can be used to expand the storability of onion seeds under ambient condition.


Enzymatic activities Ppm Seedling characters Storage containers

Article Details

How to Cite
Khan, S., Dayal, A., Thomas, N., & Shukla, P. K. (2023). Effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the storability of onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds under ambient condition . Environment Conservation Journal, 24(2), 1–15.


  1. Abdul-Baki A. A. & Anderson, J. D. (1973) Vigour determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Science;13: 630-633. DOI:
  2. Aebi, H. (1983) Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105: 121–126. DOI:
  3. Azimi, R., Feizi, H. & Hosseini, M. K. (2013). Can Bulk and Nanosized Titanium Dioxide Particles Improve Seed Germination Features of Wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum). Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 5(3):325-331 DOI:
  4. Badiyeh, G. S. F., Fazeli, A., Arminian, A., Sahraee, R. & Safari, H. (2017). The effect of silver nanoparticles on cytogenetic index in 6 cultivars of barley crop. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 30: 55-65.
  5. Bailly, C., Audigier, C., Ladonne, F., Wagner, M. H., Coste, F., Corbineau, F. & Come, D. (2001). Changes in oligosaccharide content and antioxidant enzyme activities in developing bean seeds as related to acquisition of drying tolerance and seed quality. Journal of Experimental Botany; 52 (357): 701-708. DOI:
  6. Brar, N. S., Kaushik, P. & Dudi, B. S. (2019). Assessment of Natural Ageing Related Physio-Biochemical Changes in Onion Seed. Agriculture; 9 (163): 1-15; doi:10.3390/agriculture9080163 DOI:
  7. Daood, H. G., Biacs, P., Fehér, M., Hajdu, F. & Pais, I. (1998). Effect of titanium on the activity of lipoxygenase. Journal of Plant Nutrition 11:505-516. DOI:
  8. Das, G. & Dutta, P. (2022). Effect of nanopriming with Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles on storage of chickpea seeds and Management of Wilt disease. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology; 24 (1): 213-226
  9. Dhindsa, R. H.; Plumb-Dhindsa, P.; Thorpe, T. A. Leaf senescence correlated with increased level of membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation and decreased level of SOD and CAT. Journal of Experimental Botany. 1981, 32: 93-101. DOI:
  10. Dubchak, S., Ogar, A., Mietelski, J. W. & Turnau, K. (2010). Influence of silver and titanium nanoparticles on arbuscular mycorrhiza colonization and accumulation of radiocaesium in Helianthus annus. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 8: S103-S108. DOI:
  11. Eskandarinasab, M., Rafieiolhossaini, M., Roshandel, P. & Tadayon, M. R. (2019). Investigation of seed germination indices and anthocyanin content of niger (Guizotia abyssinica) seedling under the effect of three nanoparticles. Iranian Journal of Seed Research, 5(2): 73-89. DOI:
  12. Feizi, H. & Javedanipour, E. (2021). Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Magnetic Field Stimulate Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Cannabis sativa L. Romanian Agricultural Research; 38: 1-9 DOI:
  13. Feizi, H., Moghaddam, P. R., Shahtahmassebi, N. & Fotovat, A. (2012). Impact of Bulk and Nanosized Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) on Wheat Seed Germination and Seedling Growth. Biological Trace Element Research ; 146: 101–106 DOI:
  14. Hao, Y., Zhang, Z., Rui, Y., Ren, J., Hou, T., Wu, S., Rui, M., Jiang, F. & Liu, L. (2016). Effect of Different Nanoparticles on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Rice. Advanced Material Engineering; 2:166-173 DOI:
  15. Hunje, R., Vyakarnahal, B. S. & Channappagoudar, B. B. (2007). Influence of Containers on Storability of Chilli Seed. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science; 20(3): (501-505)
  16. ISTA (2015). International Seed Testing Association. ISTA Handbook on Seedling Evaluation. 4rd edition.
  17. Kandil, A.A., Sharief, A. E. & Sheteiwy, M. S. (2013). Effect of Seed Storage Periods, Conditions and Materials on Germination of Some Soybean Seed Cultivars. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture; 3(4): 1020-1043 DOI:
  18. Khan, A. A., Sarker, K. U., Haque, M. M., Rubayet, M. T. & Mian, I. H. (2018). Storage Container, Seed Moisture Level and Storage Condition Effects on Germination and Prevalence of Seed-Borne Fungi of Onion Seed. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: D Agriculture and Veterinar; 18(3): 9-16
  19. Khater, M. S. (2014). Effect of Titanium Nanoparticles (TiO2) on Growth, Yield and Chemical Constituents of Coriander Plants. Arab Journal of Nuclear Science and Applications, 48(4):187-194
  20. Khot, L. R., Sankaran, S., Mari, M. J., Ehsani, R. & Schuster, E. W. (2012). Applications of nanomaterials in agricultural pro-duction and crop protection: A review. Crop Protection; 35:64-70. DOI:
  21. Kibinza, S., Bazin, J., Bailly, C., Farrant, J. M., Corbineau, F. & El-Maarouf-Bouteau, H. (2011). Catalase is a key enzyme in seed recovery from ageing during priming. Plant Science; 181 (3), 309–315. DOI:
  22. Lu, C. M., Zhang, C. Y., Wu, J. Q. & Tao, M. X. (2002). Research of the ef¬fect of nanometer on germination and growth enhancement of Glycine max and its mechanism. Soybean Science 21:168-172.
  23. Mahmoodzadeh, H., Nabavi, M. & Kashefi, H. (2013). Effect of Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide Particles on the Germination and Growth of Canola (Brassica napus). Journal of Ornamental and Horticultural Plants., 3 (1): 25-32
  24. Mathew, R. M., Bastian, D., Francies, R. M., Cherian, A., Raja K. K. & Herbert, M. (2021). Effect of seed invigoration with inorganic nanoparticles on seed yield in chilli (Capsicum annum). Journal of Phytology, 13: 13-15 DOI:
  25. Mohanraj, V. J. & Chen, Y. (2006). Nanoparticles- A Review. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research; 5(1):561-573. DOI:
  26. Monira, U. S., Amin, M. H. A., Aktar, M. M. & Mamun, M. M. A. (2012). Effect of containers on seed quality of storage soybean seed. Bangladesh Research Publications Journal; 7(4): 421-427
  27. Navarro, E., Baun, A., Behra, R., Hartmann, N. B., Filser, J., Miao, A., Quigg, A., Santschi, P. H. & Sigg, L. (2008). Environmental be¬havior and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to algae, plants, and fungi. Ecotoxicology; 17: 372-386. DOI:
  28. Oaikhena, E. E., Ajibade, G. A., Appah, J. & Bello, M. (2013) Dehydrogenase enzyme activities in germinating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp). Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare; 3:32–36
  29. Priya, B., Srinivasarao, M., Satyanarayana, N. H., Mukherjee, S., Das, B. & Sarkar., K. K. (2016). Effect of metal-based nanoparticles (ZnO AND TiO2) on germination and growth of cowpea seedling. The Ecoscan; 9: 359-365.
  30. Rolston, M. P., Hare, M. D., Moore, K.K. & Christensen, M.J. (2012). Viability of Lolium endophyte fungus in seed stored at different moisture contents and temperatures. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture; 14: 297-300 DOI:
  31. Sardar, R., Ahmed, S. & Yasin, N. A. (2022). Titanium dioxide nanoparticles mitigate cadmium toxicity in Coriandrum sativum L. through modulating antioxidant system, stress markers and reducing cadmium uptake. Environmental Pollution 292: 1-11 DOI:
  32. Shah, T., Latif, S., Saeed, F., Ali, I., Ullah, S., Alsahli, A. A., Jan, S. & Ahmad, P. (2021). Seed priming with titanium dioxide nanoparticles enhances seed vigour, leaf water status, and antioxidant enzyme activities in maize (Zea mays L.) under salinity stress. Journal of King Saud University Science; 33 (1): 1-8 DOI:
  33. Zhou, Y., Zhang, L., Liu, Y. & She, J. (2022). Effects of Liquid Phase Nano Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Camphor Tree. Nanomaterials, 12(7): 1-8. DOI: