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Energy budgeting is important for determining the sustainability and vulnerability of a crop production system. In the present study, an assessment of the energy requirements for cashew cultivation under three different planting densities was carried out during 2015-20. The study revealed that the total input energy consumption for cashew cultivation ranged from 75292.68 to 120903.58 MJ/ha. The energy productivity from 0.04 to 0.13 kg/MJ and energy use efficiency varied from 8.46 to 24.61% under three planting densities. The highest energy was consumed in terms of chemical fertilizers for all the planting densities followed by fuel (diesel), machinery, farmyard manure (FYM), pesticides, petrol and human energy. The analysis revealed the need to implement improved management practices to enhance the energy efficiency by reducing the energy consumption in inputs, by optimizing energy consumption and/or improving the crop yield by optimizing the cultivation methods and switching from non-renewable sources to renewable sources of energy. Among the three different planting densities, 2.5x2.5 m spacing consumed the highest energy followed by 5x5 m and 7.5x7.5m spacing. However, the planting density of 2.5x2.5 m spacing was more energy efficient over the years due to more yields per unit area.


Cashew Energy input Energy analysis Energy equivalents Specific energy

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Krishnappa, M., Nayak, M. G., Mangalassery, S., Palpandian, P., Bommanahalli Munivenkata, M., & Savadi, S. (2023). Energy budgeting and life cycle assessment of cashew cultivation under different planting densities . Environment Conservation Journal, 24(3), 67–78.


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