Main Article Content


Rice – wheat cropping system is backbone of agriculture and responsible for achieving food security in the country. However, because of threat to sustainability of this system there is urgent need of crop diversification. A field experiment to diversify the rice – wheat system in wet zone of Himachal Pradesh was carried out during the year 2017-18 at Bhadiarkhar research farm, Department of Agronomy, CSK HPKV, Palampur to evaluate productivity, profitability and energy pattern of eight different rice-based cropping systems. Results revealed that rice – palak – cucumber system resulted in significantly higher rice grain equivalent yield (16477 kg/ha), profitability (₹ 848.76/ha/day), productivity (63.62 kg/ha/day), net returns (₹ 219828/ha) and benefit cost ratio than other crop sequences whereas lowest rice grain equivalent yield (6259 kg/ha) and productivity (21.44 kg/ha/day) was recorded from traditional rice – wheat system. However, land utilization ratio and duration were found to be maximum from turmeric – pea – summer squash system (86.85) followed by rice – wheat. Energy utilization was noticed highest from rice – lettuce – potato + coriander system followed by turmeric – pea – summer squash. Maximum energy output (280.42×103MJ/ha) and energy efficiency (10.58) were observed in rice – palak – cucumber system.


Cropping system Energy Food security Productivity Profitability Sustainability

Article Details

How to Cite
Mandial, A., Negi, S. C., Kaur, P., & Kaur, N. (2023). Diversification of traditional rice – wheat system with vegetables for sustainable productivity, profitability and energy efficiency. Environment Conservation Journal, 24(3), 8–13.


  1. Hedge, D.M., Tiwari, S.P. and Rai, M. (2003). Crop diversification in Indian agriculture. Agricultural Situation in India,351-354.
  2. Jat, H.S., Kumar, V., Kakraliya, S.K., Abdallah, A.M., Datta, A., Choudhary, M., Gathala, M.K., McDonald, A.J., Jat, M.L. and Sharma, P.C. (2021). Climate-smart agriculture practices influence weed density and divesity in cereal-based agri-food systems of western Indo-Gangetic plains. Scientific Reports, 11, 15901. DOI:
  3. Jat, R.A., Dungrani, R.A., Arvadia, M.K. and Sahrawat, K.L. (2012). Diversification of rice (Oryza sativa L.) based cropping systems for higher productivity, resource-use efficiency and economic returns in South Gujarat of India. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 58(6), 561-572. DOI:
  4. Kachroo, D., Thakur, N.P., Kaur, M., Kumar, P., and Sharma, R. (2012). Productivity and energetic of rice (Oryza sativa) based cropping systems under sub-tropical condition of Jammu. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 57: 117-121.
  5. Kachroo, D., Thakur, N.P., Kaur, M., Kumar, P., Sharma, R. & Khajuria, V. (2014). Diversification of rice-based cropping system for enhancing productivity and employment. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 59, 21-25.
  6. Lohan, S.K., Jat, H.S., Yadav, A., Sidhu, H.S., Jat, M., Choudhary, M., Peter, J.& Sharma, P. (2017). Burning issues of paddy residue management in north-west states of India. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 693-706. DOI:
  7. Prasad, A. (2016). Diversification of existing rice–based cropping system for sustainable productivity under assured irrigation condition for Chhattisgarh plains. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Education and Research, 1(3), 85-88.
  8. Prasad, D., and Urkurkar, J.S. (2010). Economic evaluation of rice based cropping sequences in plain areas of Chhattisgarh. Journal of Soils and Crops, 20: 229-232.
  9. Prasad, D., Yadava, M.S.& Singh, C.S. (2013). Diversification of rice-based cropping systems for higher productivity, profitability and resource-use efficiency under irrigated ecosystem of Jharkhand. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 58, 264-270.
  10. Ray, M., Roy, D.C.&Zaman, A. (2016). Evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa)-based cropping systems for increasing productivity, resource use efficiency and energy productivity in coastal West Bengal. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 61(2), 131-137.
  11. Samui, R., Kundu, A., Mazumdar, D., Mani, P.&Sahu, P. (2004). Diversification of rice (Oryza sativa)-based cropping system in new alluvial zone of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 49,71-73.
  12. Sarkar, S. (2015). Management practices for enhancing fertilizer use efficiency under rice-wheat cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Innovare Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(2), 5–10.
  13. Sharma, R.P., Pathak, S.K., Haque, M.& Raman, K.R. (2004). Diversification of traditional rice (Oryza sativa) based cropping system for sustainable production in South Bihar alluvial plains. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 49(4), 218-222.
  14. Tandel, B.M., Patel, N.N. &Tandel, Y.N. (2014). Economic production on rice based vegetable cropping system. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 79, 233-236.