Main Article Content


Integrated weed management strategies combine tillage systems and weed control strategies. Conservation agriculture (CA) and sustainable intensification cropping systems are potential sources of improved growth and overall productivity. This study evaluated tillage and weed management strategies effects on crop growth parameters and biological yields in maize-wheat cropping system in North Western Himalayan region. Different tillage (five) and weed management practices (three) were evaluated from 2018 to 2020 on growth indices and yield with fifteen treatments. Conservation agriculture (CA) based production system (ZT, zero tillage; crop rotation and intensification; residue management i.e. ZTR-ZTR) had higher crop dry matter accumulation (DMA), relative growth rate (RGR), crop growth rate (RGR) and biological yield of maize (28698 kg/ha) and wheat crops (18750 kg/ha). The zero tillage in maize and wheat (ZT-ZT) resulted in lowest maize (24677 kg/ha) and wheat biological yield (14009 kg/ha. Among weed management treatments, application of recommended herbicides in maize and wheat crop (H-H) resulted in higher crop DMA and biological yield of maize (27652 kg/ha) and wheat crop (19540 kg/ha). Therefore, for North Western Himalayan conditions, ZTR+H-ZTR+H (Conservation tillage combined with herbicide application in maize and wheat) is superior to other combinations for growth and yield.


Biological yield Cereal crops Conservation agriculture Crop dry matter accumulation Crop growth rate Weeds management

Article Details

How to Cite
Kumar, S., Rana, S. S., Sharma, N., & Sharma, A. (2023). Growth analysis and yield evaluation under tillage and weed management practices in maize-wheat cropping system. Environment Conservation Journal, 24(2), 257–265.


  1. Aliabadi, F.H., Lebaschi, M.H., Shiranirad, A.H., Valadabadi, S.A.R., Hamidi, A. & Daneshian, J. (2008). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus hoi), different levels of phosphorus and drought stress on physiological growth indices of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). 5th International Crop Sci. Congress & Exhibition. Korea. p. 231.
  2. Baghestani, M.A., Zand, E., Soufizadeh, S., Beheshtian, M., Haghighi, A., Barjasteh, A., Birgani, D.G. & Deihimfard, R. (2008). Study on the efficacy of weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with tank mixtures of grass herbicides with broadleaved herbicides. Crop Protection 27, 104-111. DOI:
  3. Bharti, B. (2013). Dynamics of organic and inorganic fractions of nitrogen in an acid alfisol after long-term addition of chemical fertilizers and amendments in maize-wheat cropping system. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research 3(3), 179-184.
  4. Bhattacharyya, R., Das, T.K., Sudhishri, S., Dudwal, B., Sharma, A.R., Bhatia, A. & Singh, G. (2015). Conservation agriculture effects on soil organic carbon accumulation and crop productivity under a rice-wheat cropping system in the western Indo-Gangetic Plains. European Journal of Agronomy 70, 11-21. DOI:
  5. Bhattacharyya, R., Prakash, V., Kundu, S., Srivastva, A.K. & Gupta, H.S. (2009). Soil aggregation and organic matter in a sandy clay loam soil of the Indian Himalayas under different tillage and crop regimes. Agriculture, Ecosystem and environment 132, 126-134. DOI:
  6. Cannell, R.Q. & Hawes, J.D. (1994). Trends in tillage practices in relation to sustainable crop production with special reference to temperate climates. Soil and Tillage Research 30(2-4), 245-282. DOI:
  7. Chaudhary, M., Naresh, R.K., Vivek, Sachan, D.K., Rehan, Mahajan, N.C., Jat, L., Tiwari, R. & Yadav, A. (2018). Soil organic carbon fractions, soil microbial biomass carbon, and enzyme activities impacted by crop rotational diversity and conservation tillage in North West IGP: A Review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 7(11), 3573-3600. DOI:
  8. Chawala, P. & Sandhu, H.A.S. (2020). Stubble burn area estimation and its impact on ambient air quality of Patiala & Ludhiana district, Punjab, India. Heliyon 6, e03095. DOI:
  9. Chhokar, R.S., Singh, S. & Sharma, R.K. (2008). Herbicides for control of isoproturon resistant littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor) in wheat. Crop Protection 27, 719-726. DOI:
  10. Department of Economic and Statistics (2017).Economic survey of Himachal Pradesh 2017-18.Government of Himachal Pradesh, Shimla. Retrieved from
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization. (2008). Climate change and food security: a framework document. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Retrieved from
  12. Food and Agriculture Organization. (2012). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved from
  13. Ion, V., Dicu, G., Dumbravă, M., Temocico, G., Alecu, I.N., Basa, A.G. & State, D. (2015). Harvest index at maize in different growing conditions. Romanian Biotechnological Letters 20(6). DOI:
  14. Jat, H.S., Jat, R.D., Nanwal, R.K., Lohan, S.K., Yadav, A.K., Poonia, T., Sharma, P.C. & Jat, M.L. (2020). Energy use efficiency of crop residue management for sustainable energy and agriculture conservation in NW India. Renewable Energy 155, 1372-1382. DOI:
  15. Jat, H.S., Kumar, P., Sutaliya ,J.M., Kumar, S., Choudhary, M., Singh, Y. & Jat, M.L. (2019). Conservation agriculture based sustainable intensification of basmati rice-wheat system in North-West India. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 65(10), 1370-1386. DOI:
  16. Kaskarbayev, Z., Kireyev A., Suleimenov, M. &Skoblikov, V. (2002). In: Proceedings of international symposium on conservation agriculture for sustainable wheat production in rotation with cotton in limited water resource area. 14-18 October, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, Pp, 22–23.
  17. Khaliq, A.,Shakeel, M.,Matloob, A.,Hussain, S.,Tanveer, A. & Murtaza, G. (2013). Influence of tillage and weed control practices on growth and yield of wheat. Philippine Journal of Crop Science (PJCS) 38(3), 00-00.
  18. Maurya, P., Dawson, J. & Singh, V. (2021). Harvest index (hi) as influenced by total grain yield and biological yield in k-27 variety of maize crop (Zea mays L.) under varying levels of nitrogen and plant growth regulators (PGR). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 10(04), 712-716. DOI:
  19. Memon, S.Q., Nadeem, A.M.M.S., Mugha,l A.Q., Ibupoto, K.A., Kalwar, S.A., Mirani, A.A. &Saeed, M.A. (2014). Effect of tillage and use of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield components of maize. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 27(1), 41-50.
  20. Pathak, H., Saharawat, Y.S., Gathala, M. & Ladha, J.K. (2011) Impact of resource-conserving technologies on productivity and greenhouse gas emission in rice-wheat system.Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 1, 261-277. DOI:
  21. Ram, H. (2006). Ph.D. Thesis submitted to Punjab Agricultural University, Ludiana, Punjab, India.
  22. Ram, H., Singh, Y., Saini, K.S., Kler, D.S., Timsina, J. & Humphreys, E.J. (2012). Agronomic and economic evaluation of permanent raised beds, no- tillage and straw mulching for an irrigated maize-wheat system in northwest India. Experimental Agriculture 48(1), 21-38. DOI:
  23. Ramesh, Rana, S.S., Kumar, S. & Rana, R.S. (2016). Impact of different tillage methods on growth, development and productivity of maize (Zea mays) - wheat (Tritcumaestivum) cropping system. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 8(4), 1861-1867. DOI:
  24. Ravindra, K., Singh, T. & Mor, S. (2019). Emissions of air pollutants from primary crop residue burning in India and their mitigation strategies for cleaner emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production 208, 261-273. DOI:
  25. Sahu, S.K., Mangaraj, P., Beig, G., Samal, A., Pradhan, C., Dash, S. & Tyagi, B. (2021). Quantifying the high resolution seasonal emission of air pollutants from crop residue burning in India.Environmental Pollution 286, 117165. DOI:
  26. Santos, B.M. (2009). Drip-applied metam potassium and herbicides as methyl bromide alternatives for Cyperus control in tomato. Crop Protection 28, 68-71. DOI:
  27. Sime, G., Aune, J.B. & Mohammed, H. 2015. Soil and Tillage Research 148, 20-30. DOI:
  28. Singh, C., Singh, P. & Singh R. (2007): Modern techniques of raising field crops. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company Private Limited, New Delhi.
  29. Singh, G.S. & Rao, K.S. (2002). Altering indigenous farming practices in North-Western Himalayas. ENVIS Bulletin Himalayan Ecology 10(2).
  30. Singh, R., Sharma, A.R., Dhayani, S.K. & Dube, R.K. (2011). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 81(4), 330–335.
  31. Venkatramanan, V., Shah, S., Rai, A.K. & Prasad, R. (2021).Nexus between crop residue burning, bioeconomy and sustainable development goals over North-Western India. Frontier in Energy Research 8. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2020.614212. DOI:
  32. Wang, X., Zhikuan, J. &Lianyou, L. (2015). Soil and Tillage Research 153, 36–41. DOI: