Synthesis and application of biochar in conjunction with various amendments to improve salt-affected soil and crop productivity



Published Aug 18, 2023
Tirunima Patle Sanjay K. Sharma S.K. Trivedi Avinash Singh Tomar


Soil salinity is an important abiotic constraint that affects soil quality and crop productivity and has a direct impact on crop yields. Ensuring the sustainable use of saline soils while maintaining environmental integrity is of utmost importance. To achieve this, it is essential to explore and implement methods that can enhance productivity without causing harm to the ecosystem. In the current study, the effect of biochar, Simultaneous inoculation of biomes (Trichoderma harzanium and Pseudomonas fluorescence) and gypsum on soil properties and growth parameters of chickpea was investigated. Of all treatments, the combination of 75 percent GR + biochar@20t/ha and biome @2kg/ha had the greatest effect on lowering pH (9.32 to 7.61), EC (3.65 to 1.6 dSm-1) and SAR (24.22 to 5.9 Cmolc (+) kg-1). As a result, there was a notable improvement in the length of chickpea shoots and roots as well as the overall production of dry matter.

How to Cite

Patle, T., Sharma, S. K., Trivedi, S., & Tomar, A. S. (2023). Synthesis and application of biochar in conjunction with various amendments to improve salt-affected soil and crop productivity. Environment Conservation Journal.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 1 | PDF Downloads 0



Biochar, Biomes, Gypsum, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria, Soil salinity

Abbaspoor, A., Movafegh, S., & Hossein, M. (2009). The efficiency of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and yield components of two varieties of wheat in salinity condition. Am.-Eurasian J. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(4), 824–828.
Abbaspoor, H., Galavi, M., Ghanbari, A., & Panjehkeh, N. (2011). Salinity effects on seed germination and seedling growth of bread wheat cultivars. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 9(1), 43–50.
Akhtar, S. S., Andersen, M. N., & Liu, F. (2015b). Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 201(5), 368–378.
Amini, S., Ghadiri, H., Chen, C., & Marschner, P. (2016). Salt-affected soils, reclamation, carbon dynamics, and biochar: A review. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 16(3), 939–953.
Antal MJ., Gronli M. (2003). The art, science, and technology of charcoal production. Industrial Engineering and Chemical Research (42)1619-1640.
Bohn, H. L., Mcneal, B. L., & O’Connor, G. A. (2001). Soil chemistry. John Wiley and Sons incorporation. New York.
Budai, A., Zimmerman, A. R., Cowie, A. L., Webber, J. B. W., Singh, B., Glaser, B. P. (2013). Carbon, B. Stability test method: An assessment of methods to determine biochar carbon stability Int. biochar initiat.
Drake, J. A., Cavagnaro, T. R., Cunningham, S. C., Jackson, W. R., & Patti, A. F. (2016). Does biochar improve establishment of tree seedlings in saline sodic soils? Land Degradation and Development, 27(1), 52–59.
Food and Agriculture Organization. (2010). FAO production statistics, http:. Retrieved from
Gharaibeh, M. A., Eltaif, N. I., & Albalasmeh, A. A. (2011). Reclamation of highly calcareous saline–sodic soil using Atriplex halimus and by-product gypsum. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 13(9), 873–883.
Glaser B, Lehmann J, Zech W (2002) Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review. Biol Fertil Soils 35:219–230
Haefele, S. M., Konboon, Y., Wongboon, W., Amarante, S., Maarifat, A. A., Pfeiffer, E. M., & Knoblauch, C. (2011). Effects and fate of biochar from rice residues in rice-based systems. Field Crops Research, 121(3), 430–440.
Hamdia, M. A., & El-Komy, H. M. (1997). Effect of salinity, gibberellic acid and Azospirillum inoculation on growth and nitrogen uptake of Zea mays. Biologia Plantarum, 39(1), 109–120.
Hinsinger, P., Plassard, C., Tang, C., & Jaillard, B. (2003). Origins of root-mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: A review. Plant and Soil, 248(1/2), 43–59.
Jackson, M. L. (1962). Soil chemical analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Jackson, M. L. (1967). Soil chemical analysis p. 498. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Limited.
Jackson, M. L. (1973). Soil chemical analysis (pp. 106–203). New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt, Ltd.
Joseph, B., & Jini, D. (2010). Development of salt stress-tolerant plants by gene manipulation of antioxidant enzymes. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(1), 17–27.
Laird, D. A., Brown, R. C., Amonette, J. E., & Lehmann, J. (2009). Review of the pyrolysis platform for coproducing bio-oil and biochar. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 3(5), 547–562.
Lehman J, Rilling MC, Thies JE, Masiello CA, Hockaday WC, Crowley D (2011) Biochar effects on soil biota—a review. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1812–1836
Luo, X., Liu, G., Xia, Y., Chen, L., Jiang, Z., Zheng, H., & Wang, Z. (2017). Use of biochar-compost to improve properties and productivity of the degraded coastal soil in the Yellow River Delta, China. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 17(3), 780–789.
Moud, A. M., & Maghsoudi, K. (2008). Salt stress effects on respiration and growth of germinated seeds of different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4(3), 351–358.
Mukherjee, A., Zimmerman, A. R., & Harris, W. (2011). Surface chemistry variations among a series of laboratory-produced biochars. Geoderma, 163(3–4), 247–255. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.04.021
Novak, J. M., Busscher, W. J., Laird, D. L., Ahmedna, M., Watts, D. W., & Niandou, M. A. S. (2009). Impact of biochar amendment on fertility of a Southeastern coastal plain soil. Soil Science, 174(2), 105–112.
Piper, C.S. (1950) Soil and Plant Analysis. The University of Adelaide Press, Adelaide.
Roy, S., & Chowdhury, N. (2020b). Salt affected soils: Diagnosis, genesis, distribution and problems. In P. K. Naresh (Ed.), Advances in agriculture sciences 111-132. India: AkiNik Publications.
Sairam, R. K., & Tyagi, A. (2004). Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Current Science, 86(3).
Saxena, M. C. (1990). Problems and potential of chickpea production in nineties. In Chickpea in the nineties: 2nd international workshop on chickpea improvement (pp. 4–8). Patancheru, India: ICRISAT Center.
Shoresh, M., Harman, G. E., & Mastouri, F. (2010). Induced systemic resistance and plant responses to fungal biocontrol agents. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 48, 21–43.
Tekeoglu, M., Santra, D. K., Kaiser, W. J., & Muehlbauer, F. J. (2000). Ascochyta blight resistance in three chickpea recombinant inbred line populations. Crop Science, 40(5), 1251–1256.
Van Zwieten, L., Kimber, S., Downie, A., Morris, S., Petty, S., Rust, J., & Chan, K. Y. (2010). A glasshouse study on the interaction oflow meneral ash biochar with N in a sandy soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 48, 569–576.
Walkley, A.J. and Black, I.A. (1934) Estimation of soil organic carbon by the chomic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 37, 29-38
Wang, C., Lu, H. H., Dong, D. A., Deng, H., Strong, P. J., Wang, H., & Wu, W. (2013). Insight into the effects of biochar on manure composting: Evidence supporting the relationship between N2O emission and denitrifying community. Environmental Science and Technology, 47(13), 7341–7349.
Yadav, H. D., Yadav, O. P., Dhankar, O. P., & Oswal, M. C. (1989). Effect of chloride salinity and boron on germination, growth and mineral composition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Annals of Arid Zone, 28, 63–68.
Yue, Y., Cui, L., Lin, Q., Li, G., & Zhao, X. (2017). Efficiency of sewage sludge biochar in improving urban soil properties and promoting grass growth. Chemosphere, 173, 551–556.
Zainab, SAK, Zainab, AM, Jafer, H, Dulaimi, AF and Atherton, W (2018) The effect of using fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R) "as a cement replacement in soft soil stabilisation". International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9 (4). (522-533)
Research Articles