Assessment of groundwater quality from Sahibabad to Modinagar Meerut Uttar Pradesh, India using water quality index

Main Article Content

Article Sidebar

Published Oct 19, 2022
Mukesh Ruhela Purushottam Jhariya Sweta Bhardwaj Faheem Ahamad


Groundwater quality and quantity both are important for the survival of human beings on this planet. In the present study an attempt has been made to assess the groundwater quality at mass using points. To fulfil the objectives of the present study, four sites (Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, Muradnagar, and Modinagar) were selected along the metro line construction from Delhi to Meerut. At all these sites, workers of metro line projects are living and working and using the groundwater for drinking purpose. Sampling was carried out from July 2021 to June 2022 using grab method of sampling. The samples were analysed for pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, and fluoride. The data was processed using water quality index (WQI) and Pearson correlation metrix. TDS at all the study sites ranged from 514mg/l to 549.3mg/l and the values are above the standard limit of BIS (500mg/l). Values of TH, calcium and magnesium were found above the limits prescribed. Concentration of Chloride, nitrate, sulphate, and fluoride were found below the limits prescribed by BIS. However, nitrate is approaching to the standard limit (45mg/l). Correlation metrix shows that calcium is responsible for increasing values of TDS. As per the values of WQI, water quality of site 2 (46.7762), 3 (48.3523) and 4 (48.6281) falls in good category while at site 1 (50.9363) in poor category.  There is an urgent need of strict actions to stop the increasing water pollution in the area to prevent the huge population of this area from various water related implications.

How to Cite

Ruhela, M., Jhariya , P., Bhardwaj, S., & Ahamad , F. (2022). Assessment of groundwater quality from Sahibabad to Modinagar Meerut Uttar Pradesh, India using water quality index. Environment Conservation Journal.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 7 | PDF Downloads 1

Article Details


Groundwater, Survival, Metroline, Water Quality Index, Pearson Correlation, Radar Chart

Adimalla, N., & Li, P. (2019). Occurrence, health risks, and geochemical mechanisms of fluoride and nitrate in groundwater of the rock-dominant semi-arid region, Telangana State, India. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25(1-2), 81-103.
Adimalla, N., & Venkatayogi, S. (2018). Geochemical characterization and evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural utility in semi-arid region of Basara, Telangana State, South India. Applied water science, 8(1), 1-14.
Adimalla, N., & Venkatayogi, S. J. E. E. S. (2017). Mechanism of fluoride enrichment in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Medak, Telangana State, South India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76(1), 1-10.
Adimalla, N., Qian, H., & Li, P. (2020). Entropy water quality index and probabilistic health risk assessment from geochemistry of groundwaters in hard rock terrain of Nanganur County, South India. Geochemistry, 80(4), 125544.
Agarwal, M., Singh, M., &Hussain, J. (2019). Assessment of groundwater quality with special emphasis on nitrate contamination in parts of GautamBudh Nagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India. ActaGeochimica, 38(5), 703-717.
Ahmad, S., & Khurshid, S. (2019). Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater quality in parts of the Hindon River basin, Ghaziabad, India: implications for domestic and irrigation purposes. SN Applied Sciences, 1(2), 1-12.
APHA (2012) Standards methods for the examination of the waterand waste water. American Public Health Association, New York.
Aravinthasamy, P., Karunanidhi, D., Subramani, T., Srinivasamoorthy, K., & Anand, B. (2020). Geochemical evaluation of fluoride contamination in groundwater from Shanmuganadhi River basin, South India: implication on human health. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 42(7), 1937-1963.
Bhutiani, R., Ahamad, F., & Ram, K. (2021a). Quality assessment of groundwater at laksar block, haridwar in uttarakhand, India using water quality index: a case study. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(1), 197-203.
Bhutiani, R., Ahamad, F., & Ruhela, M. (2021b). Effect of composition and depth of filter-bed on the efficiency of Sand-intermittent-filter treating the Industrial wastewater at Haridwar, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(1), 88-94.
Bhutiani, R., Ahamad, F., Tyagi, V., & Ram, K. (2018). Evaluation of water quality of River Malin using water quality index (WQI) at Najibabad, Bijnor (UP) India. Environment Conservation Journal, 19(1&2), 191-201.
BIS (2012). Manak Bhavan New Delhi India. Bureau of Indian Standards, p 10500
Brown, R. M., McClelland, N. I., Deininger, R. A., & Tozer, R. G. (1970). A water quality index-do we dare. Water and sewage works, 117(10).
Central Pollution Control Board (2010). Guide manual: Water and waste water analysis. CPCB (Ed.), 1-181.
Central Water Commission (2020) Department of water resources, riverdevelopment and Ganga rejuvenation, Ministry of Jal Shakti, Governmentof India.
CGWB (2014) Dynamic ground water resources of India (as on 31stMarch 2011). Central ground water board, ministry of waterresources, river development &Ganga rejuvenation, Govt. of India.
Chatterjee, C., & Raziuddin, M. (2002). Determination of Water Quality Index(WQI) of a degraded river in Asansol industrial area(West Bengal). Nature, Environment and pollution technology, 1(2), 181-189.
Cude, C. G. (2001). Oregon water quality index a tool for evaluating water quality management effectiveness 1. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 37(1), 125-137.
Dutt, V., & Sharma, N. (2022). Potable water quality assessment of traditionally used springs in a hilly town of Bhaderwah, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 194(1), 1-20.
Farid, H. U., Ayub, H. U., Khan, Z. M., Ahmad, I., Anjum, M. N., Kanwar, R. M. A., &Sakinder, P. (2022). Groundwater quality risk assessment using hydro-chemical and geospatial analysis. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1-23.
Gleick, P. H. (2000). A look at twenty-first century water resources development. Water international, 25(1), 127-138.
Li, P., Wu, J., Tian, R., He, S., He, X., Xue, C., & Zhang, K. (2018). Geochemistry, hydraulic connectivity and quality appraisal of multilayered groundwater in the Hongdunzi Coal Mine, Northwest China. Mine Water and the Environment, 37(2), 222-237.
Logeshkumaran, A., Magesh, N. S., Godson, P. S., & Chandrasekar, N. (2015). Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India. Applied Water Science, 5(4), 335-343.
Lone, S. A., Bhat, S. U., Hamid, A., Bhat, F. A., & Kumar, A. (2021). Quality assessment of springs for drinking water in the Himalaya of South Kashmir, India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(2), 2279-2300.

Mishra, A. P., Singh, S., Jani, M., Singh, K. A., Pande, C. B., & Varade, A. M. (2022). Assessment of water quality index using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and GIS: a case study of a struggling Asan River. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 1-13.
Mukate, S., Wagh, V., Panaskar, D., Jacobs, J. A., & Sawant, A. (2019). Development of new integrated water quality index (IWQI) model to evaluate the drinking suitability of water. Ecological indicators, 101, 348-354.
Nakagawa, T., & Spiegelman, M. W. (2017). Global-scale water circulation in the Earth's mantle: Implications for the mantle water budget in the early Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 464, 189-199.
Nem?i?-Jurec, J., & Jazbec, A. (2017). Point source pollution and variability of nitrate concentrations in water from shallow aquifers. Applied Water Science, 7(3), 1337-1348.
Nem?i?-Jurec, J., Singh, S. K., Jazbec, A., Gautam, S. K., & Kova?, I. (2019). Hydrochemical investigations of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigational purposes: two case studies of Koprivnica-Križevci County (Croatia) and district Allahabad (India). Sustainable Water Resources Management, 5(2), 467-490.
Pandey, H. K., Tiwari, V., Kumar, S., Yadav, A., & Srivastava, S. K. (2020). Groundwater quality assessment of Allahabad smart city using GIS and water quality index. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 6(2), 1-14.
Ram, A., Tiwari, S. K., Pandey, H. K., Chaurasia, A. K., Singh, S., & Singh, Y. V. (2021). Groundwater quality assessment using water quality index (WQI) under GIS framework. Applied Water Science, 11(2), 1-20.
Rawat, K. S., Tripathi, V. K., & Singh, S. K. (2018). Groundwater quality evaluation using numerical indices: a case study (Delhi, India). Sustainable Water Resources Management, 4(4), 875-885.
Rezaie-Balf, M., Attar, N. F., Mohammadzadeh, A., Murti, M. A., Ahmed, A. N., Fai, C. M., ... & El-Shafie, A. (2020). Physicochemical parameters data assimilation for efficient improvement of water quality index prediction: Comparative assessment of a noise suppression hybridization approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 271, 122576.
Ruhela, M., Sharma, K., Bhutiani, R., Chandniha, S. K., Kumar, V., Tyagi, K., & Tyagi, I. (2022). GIS-based impact assessment and spatial distribution of air and water pollutants in mining area. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(21), 31486-31500.
Sadat-Noori, S. M., Ebrahimi, K., &Liaghat, A. M. (2014). Groundwater quality assessment using the Water Quality Index and GIS in Saveh-Nobaran aquifer, Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(9), 3827-3843.
Sajil Kumar, P. J. (2017). Geostatisticalmodeling of fluoride enrichment and nitrate contamination in the groundwater of Lower Bhavani Basin in Tamil Nadu, India. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 3(1), 1-10.
Shakerkhatibi, M., Mosaferi, M., Pourakbar, M., Ahmadnejad, M., Safavi, N., & Banitorab, F. (2019). Comprehensive investigation of groundwater quality in the north-west of Iran: Physicochemical and heavy metal analysis. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 8, 156-168.
Shen, Y., Oki, T., Utsumi, N., Kanae, S., &Hanasaki, N. (2008). Projection of future world water resources under SRES scenarios: water withdrawal/Projection. Hydrological sciences journal, 53(1), 11-33.
Singh, A. K. (2018). Water Security-A Reality Check. Journal of Indian Society Soil Science, 66(4).179-192.
Singh, S. K., Mustak, S., Srivastava, P. K., Szabó, S., & Islam, T. (2015a). Predicting spatial and decadal LULC changes through cellular automata Markov chain models using earth observation datasets and geo-information. Environmental Processes, 2(1), 61-78.
Singh, S. K., Srivastava, P. K., Singh, D., Han, D., Gautam, S. K., &Pandey, A. C. (2015b). Modeling groundwater quality over a humid subtropical region using numerical indices, earth observation datasets, and X-ray diffraction technique: a case study of Allahabad district, India. Environmental geochemistry and health, 37(1), 157-180.
Singh, V. B., & Tripathi, J. N. (2016). Identification of critical water quality parameters derived from principal component analysis: case study from NOIDA area in India. American Journal of Water Resources, 4(6), 121-129.
Sishodia, R. P., Shukla, S., Graham, W. D., Wani, S. P., &Garg, K. K. (2016). Bi-decadal groundwater level trends in a semi-arid south indian region: Declines, causes and management. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 8, 43-58.
Srivastava, P. K., Han, D., Gupta, M., & Mukherjee, S. (2012). Integrated framework for monitoring groundwater pollution using a geographical information system and multivariate analysis. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57(7), 1453-1472.
SubbaRao, N., Marghade, D., Dinakar, A., Chandana, I., Sunitha, B., Ravindra, B., &Balaji, T. (2017). Geochemical characteristics and controlling factors of chemical composition of groundwater in a part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental earth sciences, 76(21), 1-22.
Uddin, M. G., Nash, S., & Olbert, A. I. (2021). A review of water quality index models and their use for assessing surface water quality. Ecological Indicators, 122, 107218.
WHO (2011). Guideline for drinking water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>