Analysis of pharmacognostical standardization, antioxidant capacity and separation of phytocompounds from five different vegetable peels using different solvents



Published Sep 18, 2022
Priya Chaudhary Nidhi Varshney Devendra Singh Pracheta Janmeda


Vegetables are one of the most preferred food commodities and can be consumed either raw or as processed due to their health-promoting nutrients. In the present work, analysis of pharmacognostical standards, antioxidant capacity, and separation of phytocompounds through thin layer chromatography (TLC) from cabbage, cauliflower, pea, carrot, and potato peels were carried out. Microscopic analysis revealed the presence of wood fibers, trichomes, crystals, and annular xylem vessels in the vegetable peels. Physicochemical analysis showed that all the vegetable peel samples which were analysed have low (7.08%-10%) moisture content. The total ash content of vegetable peels varied in cauliflower peels (1.95±0.58) to the peels of pea (19.86±1.9). The content of acid insoluble ash varied from 1.46±0.63 to 3.09±0.59 in cauliflower and pea. Potato peel has the lowest water-soluble ash content (1.16±1.90) as compared to other peels. The highest pH value was found in the peels of pea (7), while the lowest pH was found in the peels of cabbage (4). Among all extracts, the petroleum ether extract has shown the greatest yield (5.6±0.45). The fluorescence analysis showed various colours like green, brown, pale green, and yellow under different chemical treatments. Different types of pri-secondary metabolites were detected in small, moderate, and high amounts and notified to provide numerous health benefits to humans. In case of DPPH assay, aqueous extract of cauliflower has shown the low value of IC50 (24.82 µg/ml) in comparison to standard, suggested the higher antioxidant activity of the extract. Among all the extracts, aqueous and methanol extracts of cauliflower have shown the better reducing and total antioxidant activity in comparison to standard. TLC profiling of methanolic extract of cabbage and cauliflower peels revealed the presence of different compounds of varying Rf values. Above results indicate that the food waste consists of valuable components and may be utilized as noticeable and cheap source in pharmaceuticals for the treatment of several life-threatening diseases.

How to Cite

Chaudhary, P., Varshney, N., Singh, D., & Janmeda , P. (2022). Analysis of pharmacognostical standardization, antioxidant capacity and separation of phytocompounds from five different vegetable peels using different solvents. Environment Conservation Journal.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 2 | PDF Downloads 0



Antioxidant assays, Diseases, Pharmacognostical standards, Scavenging potential, Thin layer chromatography, Vegetable peels

Alam, F. & us Saqib, Q.N. (2015). Pharmacognostical standardization and preliminary phytochemical studies of Gaultheria trichophylla. Pharmaceutical Biology, 53(12), 1711-1718.
Amponsah, I.K., Mensah, A.Y., Otoo, A., Mensah, M.L.K. & Jonathan, J. (2014). Pharmacognostical standardization of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(12), 941-946.
Banu, K. S. & Cathrine, L. (2015). General techniques involved in phytochemical analysis. International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science, 2(4), 25-32.
Benzie, I. F. & Strain, J. J. (1999). Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods in enzymology, 299, 15-27.
Biswas, S., Ghosh, P., Dutta, A., Biswas, M. & Chatterjee, S. (2021). Comparative analysis of nutritional constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some common vegetable wastes. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal, 9(1).
Chaudhary, P. & Janmeda, P. (2022). Quantification of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant activities from various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. Journal of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, 10(02), 133-145.
Chauhan, A., Chaudhary, P. & Janmeda, P. (2021). Vegetable peels: strong natural source of antioxidants. Agriculture and Food: E-Newsletter, 3(7), 257-260.
Gujjeti, R. P. & Mamidala, E. (2013). Phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatographic studies of Aerva lanata root extract. International journal of innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(10), 5725-5730.
Gupta, P. C., Sharma, N. & Rao, C. V. (2012). Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(5), 404-408.
Hossen, M., Hossain, M.S., Yusuf, A.T.M., Chaudhary, P., Emon, N.U. & Janmeda, P. (2021). Profiling of phytochemical and antioxidant activity of wild mushrooms: evidence from the in vitro study and phytoconstituent’s binding affinity to the human erythrocyte catalase and human glutathione reductase. Food Science & Nutrition, 10(1), 1-15.
John, S., Priyadarshini, S., Monica, S.J. & Arumugam, P. (2017). Phytochemical profile and thin layer chromatographic studies of Dacus carota peel extracts. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2(1), 23-26.
Khattak, K. F. & Rahman, T. U. (2017). Analysis of vegetable's peels as a natural source of vitamins and minerals. International Food Research Journal, 24(1), 292.
Kumar, H., Bhardwaj, K., Sharma, R., Nepovimova, E., Ku?a, K., Dhanjal, D.S., Verma, R., Bhardwaj, P., Sharma, S. & Kumar, D. (2020). Fruit and Vegetable peels: utilization of high value horticultural waste in novel industrial applications. Molecules, 25(12), 2812.
Nasreen, Z. & Qazi, J.I. (2012). Lab scale composting of fruits and vegetable waste at elevated temperature and forced aeration. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 44(5), 1285-1290.
Nguyen, V.T. & Scarlett, C.J. (2016). Mass proportion, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity of carrot peel as affected by various solvents. Technologies, 4, 3-6.
Oktay, M., Gülçin, ?. & Küfrevio?lu, Ö. ?. (2003). Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 36(2), 263-271.
Pandiyan, R. & Ilango, K. (2022). Pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of Huberantha senjiana (Annonaceae) leaf: An endemic tree of Gingee Hills Tamil Nadu India. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy Research, 10(1), 158-172.
Prakash, A., Janmeda, P., Pathak, P., Bhatt, S. & Sharma, V. (2019). Development and standardization of quality control parameters of different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum L. SN Applied Sciences, 1, 1108.
Prieto, P., Pineda, M. & Aguilar, M. (1999). Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analytical biochemistry, 269(2), 337-341.
Rowayshed, G., Sharaf, A.M., El-Faham, S.Y., Ashour, M.M.S. & Zaky, A.A. (2015). Utilization of potato peel extract as source of phytochemicals in biscuits. Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, 8(3), 190-210.
Sagar, N.A., Pareek, S., Sharma, S., Yahia, E.M. & Lobo, M.G. (2018). Fruit and Vegetable waste: bioactive compounds, their extraction, and possible utilization. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 17(3), 512-531.
Sarkar, C., Chaudhary, P., Jamaddar, S., Janmeda, P., Mondal, M., Mubarak, M.S. & Islam, M.T. (2022). Redox activity of flavonoids: impact on human health, therapeutics, and chemical safety. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 35, 140-162.
Schreinemachers, P., Simmons, E.B. & Wopereis, M.C.S. (2018). Tapping the economic and nutritional power of vegetables. Global Food Security, 16(2018), 36-45.
Sharma, N., Chaudhary, P. & Janmeda, P. (2022). Terpenoids as anticancer agents (Mechanistic approach). Agriculture and Food: E-newsletter, 4(4), 134-137.
Sharma, V. & Janmeda, P. (2013). Chemopreventive role of Euphorbia neriifolia (Linn) and its isolated flavonoid against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced renal histopathological damage in male mice. Toxicology international, 20(1), 101.
Sharma, V. & Janmeda, P. (2017). Extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoid from Euphorbia neriifolia leaves. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10(4), 509-514.
Shewfelt, R. L. (1993). Measuring quality and maturity. In: Postharvest Handling: A Systems Approach. Shewfelt, R. L. and Prussia, S. E. (Eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 99–124