https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/issue/feed Environment Conservation Journal 2020-08-04T05:19:12+00:00 Prof. D.R. Khanna editors@environcj.in Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Environment Conservation Journal</strong> aims to publish original research/ review papers/ Book reviews/ Reports on conferences/ seminars/ important events, news of interest/ information on forthcoming seminar/ books on the environment-related aspects.</p> https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/87 Determination of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in leaves, stem and roots of Uraria picta Desv 2020-08-02T08:10:52+00:00 B. Mohan brijmohan625@gmail.com H. O. Saxena hariomsaxena81@gmail.com A. Kakkar brijmohan625@gmail.com M. K. Mishra brijmohan625@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Uraria picta</em> Desv. belonging to family Leguminosae: Papilionoidae is one of the important constituent of “Dashmoolarista”, a well-established Ayurvedic drug of Indian system of medicine. The objectives of the present study were to determine the free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in leaves, stem and roots of U. picta. Powdered samples of leaves, stem and roots were subjected to successive extraction with solvents of increasing polarities i.e. Ethanol, Water: Ethanol (Aqua- alcoholic) (20: 80) and Water (aqueous) using soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were determined by using Folin-Ciocalteau method, aluminum chloride colorimetric technique and DPPH free radical scavenging methods respectively. The results exhibited the maximum phenolic (1.991±0.299%) and flavonoid (2.865±0.11%) contents in ethanolic extract of leaves. For stem, the highest phenolic content (1.208±0.115%) and highest flavonoid content (22.189±2.7%) were detected in aqueous and ethanolic<br>extracts respectively. For roots, both the maximum phenolic (3.554±0.004%) and flavonoid (0.497±0.507%) contents were found in Aqua- alcoholic extract of roots. The ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem and aqueous extract of roots were found to contain the lowest IC50 and hence, the maximum antioxidant activity. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that among the different extracts of leaves, stem and roots of U. picta, the ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem and aqueous extract of roots exhibited the more promising antioxidant activity due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/88 Patterns of invasion by crofton weed (Ageratina adenophora) in Kailash sacred landscape region of western Himalaya (India) 2020-08-01T17:27:46+00:00 Alka Chaudhary chaudhary.alka43@gmail.com B.S Adhikari chaudhary.alka43@gmail.com N.C. Joshi chaudhary.alka43@gmail.com G.S. Rawat chaudhary.alka43@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Invasion of alien species in high altitude ecosystems is a potent threat to the species diversity as well as it can cause severe environmental and economic issues. The invasion of alien plant species can be facilitated by many eco-climatic factors. The present study was conducted to assess patterns and trends of invasion by Ageratina adenophora in major land use and land cover types; in Gokerneshwergad watershed of Kailash Sacred Landscape (KSL) in western Himalaya. Extensive surveys were conducted to map the species in each season and habitat type. Sites with high biotic pressure and open forest canopy were the most suitable habitats for its growth. A negative correlation was found between distribution and altitude. The highest invasion was recorded in between 1700 – 1800m elevation gradient, between 20° and 30° slope positions and at North (33.33%), whereas, the lowest invasion was recorded between 700 – 800m in South-East directions (3.70%). Several other parameters such as distance from the disturbance site such as road, villages or settlements, drainage and soil texture were also found to be affecting the distribution pattern of this species. Interestingly results reveal that the alien plants also start competing among themselves after reaching their threshold level.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/89 High value fermented nutraceutical product from pomegranate aril and rind blends 2020-08-01T17:27:46+00:00 M Karan, karan9130@gmail.com K.N. Sreenivas karan9130@gmail.com G.S. Manjula karan9130@gmail.com R.M. Chirag karan9130@gmail.com Mohamad Tayeeb Ulla, H. karan9130@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Nutraceutical enriched blended beverages were prepared by using different fruit combination of pomegranate, jamun, kokum and pomegranate rind powder, where the TSS (14 °B) was maintained by using raisin syrup. Fermentation was carried out for 72 hours using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus (MTCC 552) and left for ageing. Among different blending, combination Pomegranate aril (50%) + Pomegranate rind powder (1%) + Jamun pulp (20%) + Kokum (5%) recorded 28.80 mg 100-1 ascorbic acid, 4.4 % reducing sugars, 7.59 % total sugars, 414.72 mg GAE 100 ml-1 phenolic content, 255.78 mg GAE 100 ml-1 antioxidant content, 5.24 mg 100 ml-1 anthocyanin content, 3.80 % alcohol and rated superior by sensory panel.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/90 Seasonal diversity of water birds of Tapti River in Burhanpur District (M.P.) 2020-08-01T17:27:46+00:00 Vivek Keshre vivek.keshre@gmail.com <p>Birds have been always fascinated for their ability to fly in air and for their exquisite coloration. They have their functional role in the ecosystem as potential pollinators and scavengers, and are rightly called as bio-indicators. The avifaunal diversity in Tapti River from Dedtalai to Burhanpur M.P. was studied for a period of one and half years (July 2017 –January 2019) The River inhabits several local and migratory bird species. Reduction in water retention in this river in summer has affected the avifaunal diversity in the study area. This habitat attracted 29 bird species belongs to 10 families, which are local and migratory. Highest population of migratory Red crested pochard, Spot billed Ducks and Great whistling Ducks were recorded in January while residents were herons and little cormorants.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/91 Calculation of carbon footprints in semi urban areas of Jammu, J&K (India) 2020-08-01T17:27:46+00:00 Khired Tanveer Malik khired@gmail.com Purnima Srivastava khired@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">In present study an attempt has been made to assess the carbon footprints of Sunjwan (A residential and semi urban area of Jammu district in the state of J&amp;k). The study area is a village about 12-15 kms from General bus stand Jammu. The Carbon footprints analysis is based on the cumulative consumption of electricity, diesel/petrol, firewood and LPG. The per capita emission of CO2 in study area was found out to be 1.08 tonnes per year and 5.46 tonnes per household per year. The major contributor to carbon emissions is Diesel and petrol the reason for which being the rapid and large scale construction work in the progressively developing area. Another important contributor to Carbon emissions is the burning of fuel wood mainly used by the local bakers who use traditional clay ovens.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/92 Checklist of Blattodea from Maharashtra State in India 2020-08-01T17:27:46+00:00 S. Prabakaran prabakaranzsi@yahoo.co.in M. Senraj. prabakaranzsi@yahoo.co.in S. M. Packiam prabakaranzsi@yahoo.co.in Deepa Jaiswal prabakaranzsi@yahoo.co.in <p style="text-align: justify;">An annotated checklist of the Blattids of Maharashtra state is prepared based on the available literature and online database resources. Earlier studies has been made by (Jadhav and Sharma, 2012) listed that 12 species of Blattids from this state, in the present situation an updated checklist has been made to the Blattodea fauna includes 32 species comprises 4 family comes under 23 genera. Globally the Blattodea contains a total of 7570 species are recognized, of which 4641 species are cockroaches and 2929 species are termites has been listed (Krishna et.al., 2013). This 4641 species are accommodated under 492 genera belonging to 8 families. Among this, 170 species under 65 genera belonging to 5 families, so far reported from India (Prabakaran and Senraj 2018) (Excluding Epifamily: Termitoidae).The classification followed here as after Beccaloni &amp; Eggleton 2013.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/93 Medicinal value and mechanism of light adaptation in Lepidium latifolium in Ladakh region 2020-08-01T17:27:46+00:00 A. K. Verma averma2@jmi.ac.in Y. Goyal averma2@jmi.ac.in K Dev averma2@jmi.ac.in <p style="text-align: justify;">Medicinal plants have been used form ancient times in treatment of many diseases. These plants are the cheap source of drugs and have very fewer side effects. Lepidium latifolium is an invasive plant belongs to Brassicaceae family. It found in the mountainous area of Ladakh. It used as a phytofood in the Ladakh area. It is used in treatment of many diseases due to its medicinal properties. It has several natural antioxidants which suppress the biological system. From ancient times, it mainly used as stomach tonics and diuretics. Although it also used in the treatment of other diseases like kidney related diseases, hypertension, diabetes and many more. It also has anti-tumor properties. Due to the mountainous region, Ladakh has very low temperature. Due to its physiological plasticity,&nbsp; epidium latifolium can grow in the extremely harsh conditions of Ladakh area. In this review, we will discuss about the medicinal properties and the light adaptation of Lepidium latifolium in Ladakh area.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/94 Air pollution mitigation through yajna: Vedic and modern views 2020-08-01T17:27:46+00:00 Devender Kumar devmehta4018@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">In the modern way, our way of life has come under the influence of a new type of air pollution, just as humans are bound to live in polluted environment outside the home due to heavy pollution factors like factory, power plants and excess use of vehicles. Today, in the time of new technology, it is almost impossible to imagine life without these devices like mobiles, laptop, fridge, microwave ovens, air conditioners etc there is no strong solution to the radiation generated at the time of production and consumption of these devices. At the time the solution to reduce internal and external air pollution is found in our Indian scriptures as YAGYA. Veda is the pillar of Indian culture and human life .facts mentioned in Vedas are proven and important in the CHANDOGYA UPNISHAD, Yagya has been described as the best means of resolving environment pollution. It is said that about Yagya that is removes all impurities and pollution and makes it pure. The Havan Samegri used in the Yagya is burnt in fire and spread everywhere with the help of air removes contaminated air and creates a fragrant environment. In the modern era, it has become clear from the researches on Yagya that the number of particulate matters(which is harmful for human body and are responsible for lungs and heart diseases) are decreased by sacrificing some special wood like mango etc. It was observed that after performance of Yagya there was a significant decrease in the indoor EMR (Electromagnetic Radiation) level indicating a utility of Yagya as nonconventional solution for reducing indoor EMR level. Foreign scientist TRILVERT has said in his research that the sweet material like sugar used in Yagya has extraordinary power to purify the air.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/95 Status of migration in Uttarakhand: A case study of Rudraprayag District 2020-08-01T17:27:47+00:00 Ashutosh Jangwan pallaviupreti@gmail.com Pallavi Upreti pallaviupreti@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Migration is one of the important dimensions in constructing population dynamics in any region. Migration is often the outcome of numerous multidimensional factors. They might be physical, economic, socio-cultural political factors or blend of one or more. In the present time economic factors are main responsible factors behind the migration in the developing and under developed countries. Migration has a direct impact on the population size of areas of origin and destination (Goldscheider, 1987). The entire Himalayan region is completely affected by migration and the state of Uttarakhand is no excetion to this, which has shown a constant increasing trend in intra rural urban migration since its formation in 2000. The Rudraprayag region in Uttarakhand is one of the rugged terrain areas with harsh climatic conditions and limited employment opportunities. Therefore, the study tries to analyses the migration trend in the area based on the primary survey of 16 villages. The maximum share of migrants is due to job and employment which makes<br>up to 13.58% in the region. Education is the second most important region with 11.13% due to which people tend to migrate in the region especially the younger population. The migration condition of Rudraprayag district is presented in this paper.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/96 Four pyrophytic pteridophytes in the Chir pine forest of Kalidhar forest range in Shiwaliks of North West Himalaya in Indian Himalayan region. 2020-08-01T17:27:47+00:00 Pallvi Sharma pallviraina737@yahoo.com Harish Chander Dutt pallviraina737@yahoo.com Bikarma Singh pallviraina737@yahoo.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Fire always plays a significant role in the secondary succession and maintenance of various communities or ecosystems on earth, like grass community, understorey community in a forest and on a large perspective forest ecosystem. Vascular cryptogams form an important group of plants that is recovered very rapidly after the fire events. This is perhaps due to their rhizomes lying below the ground surface, which are able to evade the fire stress. Current study deals with presence of four pyrophytic (fire–tolerant)&nbsp; teridophytes in Kalidhar forest range at Jammu district.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/97 Ichthyofaunal diversity of Tumaria reservoir, Kashipur, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand) 2020-08-04T05:19:12+00:00 Pramod Kumar drpramodkumar1975@gmail.com Radhey Shyam drpramodkumar1975@gmail.com Smita Badola drpramodkumar1975@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Present study was carried out to examine the diversity of fish fauna in Tumaria reservoir, Kashipur, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India. The water of reservoir is mainly used for irrigation and fish culture. Tumaria reservoir gathers huge variety of fish fauna. Present study was conducted for the period of one year that is January 2017 to December 2017. During the study a total of 10 families and 46 species are identified belonging to Cyprinidae (21), Cobitidae (10), Ophiocephalidae (4), Centropomidae (3), Mastacembelidae (3) and 1 species each from Notopteridae, belonidae, Nandidae, Anbantidae and Gobiidae. The detailed taxonomic account of these fish species is documented in this research paper.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/98 Study on synergistic action of Coriandrum sativum seed extracts on antibiotics against multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa 2020-08-04T05:18:38+00:00 Pratik M. Bezalwar pratikmbezalwar@gmail.com Vijay N. Charde pratikmbezalwar@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Increase in resistance of antibiotic against P. aeruginosa, the antibiotic treatment therapy fail to exterminate the infection. The approach of new strategy is must to deal with multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa. In the present study total 300 isolates from different clinical samples (Urine, Blood, Sputum, and Pus) were studied for isolation, identification and analysis of resistance pattern against 22 antibiotics. Total 5 most resistant isolates (U004, P017, P078, U105, and U237) were screened to search for synergistic approach of Coriandrum sativum extract prepared by both Soxhlet method and Maceration process in different solvents; petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and water. Encouraging results were obtained where HDME extract could synergise the activity of total 8 antibiotics that are; MZ, CPZ, CTX, PB, LE, DOR, AZ and CAZ. Thus the present study provides and landmark approach to deal with multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa by synergistic action of antibiotic and Coriandrum sativum extract.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/99 Cooking quality, nutritional composition and consumer acceptance of functional jackfruit pasta enriched with red amaranthus 2020-08-02T04:47:55+00:00 B.S Swathi ms_sajeev@rediffmail.com G.P.R Lekshmi ms_sajeev@rediffmail.com M.S. Sajeev ms_sajeev@rediffmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Jackfruit is an important tropical fruit grown extensively in homesteads of Kerala. Even though jackfruit is a pack house of nutritional components, it remains underexploited and facing huge postharvest loss. Jackfruit bulb and seed are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, fibre and other bioactive compounds and can be utilised for the development of value added products with health benefits and jackfruit pasta is promising as demand for nutritious pasta is increasing domestically as well as internationally. The present study aimed to develop red amaranthus enriched functional jackfruit pasta with natural red colour, nutritional qualities and consumer acceptability. The red amaranthus paste was added in two different proportions (5% and 10%) to different formulations of jackfruit pasta&nbsp; comprising of jackfruit bulb flour, seed flour and cassava flour replacing a portion of refined flour. The enrichment with 10% of red amaranthus as paste to jackfruit pasta formulations reduced cooking loss, improved the cooking quality characters, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes and produced naturally coloured pasta with higher consumer acceptability.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/100 Impact assessment of contaminated River Yamuna water irrigation on soil and crop grown in peri-urban area of Delhi-NCR 2020-08-04T05:18:02+00:00 Neelam Patel sumitiitdelhi2013@gmail.com Sumit Pal sumitiitdelhi2013@gmail.com Anushree Malik sumitiitdelhi2013@gmail.com D.K. Singh sumitiitdelhi2013@gmail.com <p>Yamuna is the main river for the water resources and irrigation purposes in the National Capital region Delhi. The whole Yamuna pusta region is occupied for agricultural practices. In the present study, water, soil and crop of Yamuna has been collected from 15 different sites of Delhi at regular interval and analysed for the heavy metals name of Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn and various physico- chemical properties. There is a high significant correlation found between Copper-Lead, Copper –Zinc, Copper-Nickel, Nickel-Lead and Lead-Zinc. The metal contamination was found very high in the soil situated near Yamuna irrigated with irrigation water having heavy metal contamination. The metal got accumulated in soil and then bio accumulated by the crops grown on the contaminated agricultural field.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/101 Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)-a climate resilient crop for food and nutritional security: A Review 2020-08-04T05:17:30+00:00 S. Bhat sbsujiraghu@gmail.com C. Nandini sbsujiraghu@gmail.com S. Srinathareddy sbsujiraghu@gmail.com G. Jayarame sbsujiraghu@gmail.com Prabhakar sbsujiraghu@gmail.com <p>Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is an important short duration crop that adapts well to varied climatic conditions and is grown worldwide for food, feed and fodder purposes. Due to its lowest water and nutrient requirement, it has the potential for agriculture diversification. Nutritionally, proso millet grains are rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients compared to other staple cereals. Recently the demand of the crop has increased due to its highly nutritious grains. Thus it has the potential to provide both food and nutritional security. Despite enormous potential, the crop has not gained the popularity among masses and is still considered as poor man’s food. This work therefore is an attempt to compile the merge information available on crop history, phylogeny, germplasm resources, and present status to make the crop comprehensive and revamp its cultivation.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/102 Identification of potential sites for water harvesting structures in Gadela watershed using remote sensing and GIS 2020-08-04T05:16:57+00:00 Ch Radha Srivalli srivallicheraku@gmail.com Manjeet Singh srivallicheraku@gmail.com <p>In this study the suitable sites for water harvesting structures in Gadela watershed has been identified using remote sensing and GIS. The satellite imagery of 30 m resolution data downloaded from bhuvan was used to prepare Elevation and slope map for the study area. The other thematic maps such as Land use land cover, Geomorphology, Soil, Transmissibility and Runoff maps were prepared to suggest suitable water harvesting structures. The weighted overlay approach has been applied for the prepared thematic maps based on their importance in water harvesting and converted to normalized maps. These maps were overlaid using Arc GIS tool to get the final suitability map. The suitability of the study area divided in to low, medium and high priority zones and found 31% of area is highly suitable and 45% as medium and 24% less suitable. 62 places Suitable for various harvesting structures. Twenty four Check dams, twenty five farm ponds, four nala bunds, contour trench in 187 ha for barren land and a Gully plug were proposed for the study area as per Integrated Mission For Sustainable Development (IMSD) guidelines.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/103 The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Panthera pardus of Katepurna wildlife sanctuary, Akola India 2020-08-04T05:16:24+00:00 Milind Shirbhate milindshirbhate2912@gmail.com Amrita Shirbhate milindshirbhate2912@gmail.com <p>To study the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of Panthera pardus, 26 scat samples were collected from Katepurna Sanctuary during the census period conducted by forest department during January 2018. Out of these 21 samples had the highest overall infection rate of Paragonimus sp. Echinostomatidae, Dicrocoeliidae, Pseudophyllidea, Taeniidae, Mesocestoides sp. Hymenolepididae Acanthocephala, Spiruroidea, Gnathostoma sp. Molineus sp. Ancylostomoidea, Mammomonogamus sp. Toxocara-like, Toxascaris sp., Aelurostrongylus sp., Capillaria sp. and Mixed type of infections of Ascaris sp. was found faecal samples. This study provided a first overview on parasites in Panthera pardus in the Katepurna Sanctuary.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/104 Distellery spent wash (DSW) treatment methodogies and challenges with special reference to incineration: An overview 2020-08-04T05:15:51+00:00 S. Bhardwaj faheem.ahamad170390@gmail.com M. Ruhela mruhela@gmail.com R. Bhutiani rbhutiani@gmail.com F. Ahamad faheem.ahamad170390@gmail.com R. Bhardwaj faheem.ahamad170390@gmail.com <p>Biofuels are derived from renewable bio-mass resources and, therefore, provide a strategic advantage to promote sustainable development and to supplement conventional energy sources in meeting the rapidly increasing requirements for transportation fuels associated with high economic growth, as well as in meeting the energy needs of India’s vast rural population. India is major producer of potable and industrial alcohols. The majority of distilleries use molasses as a feed stock. Ethyl alcohol is an important feed stock for the manufacturer of various chemicals. The effluent from the distillery is described as spent wash/vinasse. It was recognized in 2001 by the CPCB that concentrating or drying the spent wash and burning it with ancillary fuel, with energy recovery in the form of steam, is the most attractive alternative as a fertilizer. Distillery Spent Wash (DSW) is a rich source of organic matter and nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sulfur. In addition, it contains sufficient amount of micro-nutrients such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, and molybdenum. Vinasse incineration can claim to be the best viable solution to treat distillery vinasse economically to meet the zero liquid discharge target of the industry. This review indicates that a wide range of<br>biological as well as physicochemical treatments, over the years for the treatment of distillery spent wash. No single technology can be employed for absolute treatment of distillery spent wash. There is a need to use a mix of treatment options with adequate protocols and guidelines so that spentwash can be gainfully utilized for biogas generation, biocompost, ferti-irrigation, one time land application, irrigation, sodic land reclamation and co-processing.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA https://journal.environcj.in/index.php/ecj/article/view/105 Weed management practices in direct seeded rice ecosystem in north western zone of Tamil Nadu 2020-08-04T05:15:17+00:00 C. Sivakumar sivachi15@yahoo.co.in A. Krishnaveni sivachi15@yahoo.co.in M. Pandiyan sivachi15@yahoo.co.in <p>Field experiments were conducted to study the cost effective weed management practices in direct seeded rice at Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur 635 112, Tamil Nadu, India in wet and dry seasons of 2015 and 2016 respectively in randomized block design with four replications. The treatments are pre- emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg ai ha-1 at 8 DAS followed by hand weeding at 25 DAS (T1 ), pre- emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg ai ha-1 at 8 DAS followed by post emergence application of Bispyribac sodium 25 g ha-1 at 25 DAS+ hand weeding at 45 DAS (T2 ) and Cono weeder weeding at 10 and 25 DAS (T3 ), Hand weeding on 15 and 30 DAS (T4 ) and Control - Weedy check (T5 ). The results revealed that, among the different weed control treatments, application of pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin 1.0 kg ai ha-1 at 8 DAS with POE Bispyribac sodium 25g ha-1 at 25 DAS and HW on 45 DAS (T2 ) recorded higher grain yield of 6438 kg ha-1 with the B:C ratio of 2.77. With respect to weed control efficiency, application of pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin 1.0 kg ai ha-1 at 8 DAS with POE Bispyribac sodium 25g ha-1 at 25 DAS and HW on 45 DAS (T2 ) recorded higher weed control efficiency of 81.0 % as compared with Cono weeder weeding at 10 and 25 DAS. Hence, it was concluded that considering the weed control efficiency, yield and economics, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg ai ha-1 at 8 DAS with POE Bispyribac sodium 25g ha-1 at 25 DAS and HW on 45 DAS is recommended for weed management in direct seeded puddled rice to meet the challenges against labour scarcity and weed infestation in the field of small and marginal farmers.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 (C) ASEA