Main Article Content

Abstract

Agroforestry is an integration of tree species with agricultural crops or livestock that can be directly used to enhance agro biodiversity, rural livelihood and to meet the demand of green fodder throughout the year. Considering this fact, a study was done at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana to assess the productivity of fodder crops under poplar based agroforestry system. In February 2016, poplar was planted in six different spacing of 3× 3 m, 4×3 m, 5×3 m, 6×3 m, 7×3 m and 8×3 m. In this study, fodder crops (sorghum during Kharif season and oat and berseem during Rabi season) were intercropped in different spacing’s of poplar and compared with control in three replications. The results revealed that the maximum DBH (13.92 cm), basal diameter (16.90 cm) and crown spread (6.79 m) attained in 8×3 m spacing while maximum height (9.61 m) is attained in 3×3 m spacing. The highest pH (7.94) and EC (0.27 dS/m) were recorded in 8×3 m spacing while highest SOC (0.47 %), N (158.5 kg/ha), P (16.8 kg/ha) and K (343.8 kg/ha) were recorded in 3×3 m spacing. Green fodder biomass of sorghum (38.45 t/ha), berseem (64.56 t/ha) and oat (52.62 t/ha) was recorded higher in wider spacing (8×3 m) as compared to sole crops. The maximum light intensity (672.4 Lux) was recorded in 8×3 m at 1.00 pm in the month of July, 2018. Higher value of BCR was observed for poplar with oat (2.44) followed by poplar with sorghum (2.31) and poplar with berseem (2.28) under 3×3 m spacing indicating that closer spacing of 3×3 m of poplar is more economic than the other spacings due to more number of trees per unit area and more production of wood.

Keywords

Agroforestry Berseem Light intensity Oat Poplar Sorghum Spacing

Article Details

How to Cite
Yadav, S., Dhillon, R. S. ., Ahlawat, K. ., Sirohi, C. ., Johar, V. ., & Ashish. (2022). Agroforestry: Viable alternatives for ensuring green fodder production around the year. Environment Conservation Journal, 23(1&2), 203–210. https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.021897-2159

References

  1. Amatya, S.M., Cedamon, E., & Nuberg, I. (2018). Agroforestry systems and practices in Nepal- Revised Eds. Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Nepal, 108pp + xviii.
  2. Bhandari, N., Gill, R. I. S., Singh, B., & Dhatt, A. S. (2015). Effect of varieties and sowing time on potato under poplar based agroforestry system. Indian Journal of Agroforestry, 17(1), 29-35.
  3. Chaturvedi, O. P., & Pandey, I. B. (2001). Yield and economics of Populus deltoides G3 Marsh based inter-cropping system in eastern India. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 11(3), 207-216.
  4. Chauhan, S. K., Gupta, N., Walia, R., Yadav, S., Chauhan, R., & Mangat, P. S. (2011). Biomass and carbon sequestration potential of poplar-wheat inter-cropping system in irrigated agro-ecosystem in India. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A, 1(4), 575-586.
  5. Chauhan, S. K., Sharma, R., & Dhillon, W. S. (2012). Status of intercropping in poplar based agroforestry in India. For. Bull, 12, 49-67.
  6. Chavan, S. B., & Dhillon, R. S. (2019). Doubling farmers’ income through Populus deltoides-based agroforestry systems in northwestern India: an economic analysis. Current Science, 117(2), 25.
  7. Chisanga, K., Bhardwaj, D.R. & Sharma, S. (2013). Bio-economic appraisal of agroforestry systems in dry temperate western Himalayas. Journal of Tree Sciences, 32(1&2): 43-48.
  8. Das, D. K., Chaturvedi, O. P., Jabeen, N., & Dhyani, S. K. (2011). Predictive models for dry weight estimation of above and below ground biomass components of Populus deltoides in India: Development and comparative diagnosis. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(3), 1145-1152.
  9. Dhillon, N. K., Singh, P., & Singh, H. (2020). Soil Organic Carbon, Phosphorus and Potassium in Soils under Poplar Based Agro-Forestry in Punjab. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 9(7), 1117-1124.
  10. Gupta, G., Kantwa, S.R. & Singh, K.K. (2020). Fodder production, conservation and utilization. Krishak Bharti, 4: 64.
  11. Hirak, B., Dhara, P. K., Sunirmal, M., & Sukanta, P. (2009). Growth and productivity of trees and intercrops under agroforestry system in red and lateritic zone of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Agroforestry, 11(2), 85-89.
  12. Idol, T., Haggar, J., & Cox, L. (2011). Ecosystem services from smallholder forestry and agroforestry in the tropics. In Integrating agriculture, conservation and ecotourism: examples from the field (pp. 209-270). Springer, Dordrecht.
  13. Jain, S. K., & Singh, P. (2000). Economic analysis of industrial agroforestry: poplar (Populus deltoides) in Uttar Pradesh (India). Agroforestry systems, 49(3), 255-273.
  14. Kang, B. T., & Akinnifesi, F. K. (2000, May). Agroforestry as alternative land?use production systems for the tropics. In Natural Resources Forum (Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 137-151). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  15. Kumar, A., Singh, V., Shabnam, S., Oraon, P. R., & Kumari, S. (2019). Comparative study of wheat varieties under open farming and poplar-based agroforestry system in Uttarakhand, India. Current Science, 117(6), 1054.
  16. Kumar, S., Shakhelaand, R.R. & Desai, N.H. (2014). Simarouba (Simarouba glauca DC) (TBO) based silvipasture system in semi arid region of Gujarat. Journal of Agroecology and Natural Resource Management, 1(3): 222-223.
  17. Luedeling, E., Smethurst, P. J., Baudron, F., Bayala, J., Huth, N. I., Van Noordwijk, M., ... & Sinclair, F. L. (2016). Field-scale modeling of tree–crop interactions: Challenges and development needs. Agricultural Systems, 142, 51-69.
  18. Lundgren, B. O. (1987). Institutional aspects of agroforestry research and development. Agroforestry, 43.
  19. Malhi, G. S., Kaur, M., Sharma, K., & Gupta, G. (2020). Hydroponics technology for green fodder production under resource deficit condition. Vigyan Varta, 1(5), 65-68.
  20. Martínez-Salinas, A. (2016). The role of agroforestry in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provisioning. Agriculture for Development, 28, 15-16.
  21. Nandal, D. P. S., & Hooda, M. S. (2005). Production potential of some agricultural crops under different spacings of poplar. Indian Journal of Agroforestry, 7(1), 16-20.
  22. Panse, V.G. & Sukhatme, P.V. (1989). Statistical methods for agricultural workers. 4th Edition, ICAR Publication, New Delhi, India.
  23. Patel, A. (2016). Enhancing milk productivity, output and quality in India. International Journal of Scientific Research and Technology, 2(5), 22-30.
  24. Singh, H., & Mavi, H. K. (2016). Economic analysis of poplar based agroforestry system under riparian wet land conditions of Punjab. Indian Journal of Economics and Development, 12(1), 191-196.