Main Article Content


In the present study, Monascus red biopigment produced by solid-state fermentation was evaluated for its anti-microbial and antioxidative potential. The antibacterial activity through Scanning Electron Microscopy against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus was found to show morphological damage in some cells, as evidenced by the outflow of cell contents, deep craters, burst cells, and cell death at concentration of 200 µg/ml of biopigment. Moreover, antibacterial activity through agar well diffusion method against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was in range of 2-6 mm by varying concentration of biopigment from 1 to 20 mg/ml.Next, the antifungal activity of the extracted biopigment was in the range of 2-9 mm for Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. In addition, antioxidant efficacy of red biopigment through DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay results was found to show 59.69 %, 91.1 %,  and 15.22 % free radical scavenging activity. The results of this study revealed that red biopigment has potential to modulate the antimicrobial and antioxidative activity.


Antimicrobial Antioxidative Food colorants Monascus purpureus Red Biopigment

Article Details

How to Cite
Chaudhary, V., Katyal, P. . ., Panwar, H. . ., Puniya, A. K. . ., & Poonia, A. K. . . (2022). Evaluating anti-microbial and anti-oxidative potential of red biopigment from Monascus purpureus. Environment Conservation Journal, 23(1&2), 83–93.


  1. Bi, M. A., & Gajalakshmi, P. (2018). Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of the pigment produced by Monascus purpureus. Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 13,378-384.
  2. Alam, M. N., Bristi, N. J., & Rafiquzzaman, M. (2013). Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 21, 143-52. DOI:
  3. Chen, F., He, Y., & Zhou, Y. (2015). Edible Filamentous Fungi from the Species Monascus: Early Traditional Fermentations, Modern Molecular Biology and Future Genomics. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety,14, 65-87. DOI:
  4. Chen, R., Zhang, K., Zhang, H., Gao, C., & Li, C. (2018). Analysis of the antimicrobial mechanism of porcine beta defensin 2 against E. coli by electron microscopy and diferentially expressed genes. ScientificReports, 8, 14711. DOI:
  5. Chen, W., Chen, R., Liu, Q., He, Y., He, K., Ding, X., Kang, L., Guo, X., Xie, N., Zhou, Y., Lu, Y., Cox, R. J., Molnar, I. A., Li, M., Shaoa, Y., & Chen, F. (2017). Orange, red, yellow: biosynthesis of azaphilone pigments in Monascus fungi. Chemical Science,8, 4917. DOI:
  6. Cheng, J., Choi, B., Yang, S. H., & Suh, J. (2016). Effect of Fermentation on the Antioxidant Activity of Rice Bran by Monascus pilosus KCCM 60084. Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, 59, 57-62. DOI:
  7. Cheng, M., Wu, M., Chen, I., Tseng, M., & Yuan, G. (2011). Chemical constituents from the fungus Monascus purpureus and their antifungal activity. Phytochemistry Letters, 4, 372-376. DOI:
  8. Cheng, M. J., Wu, M. D., Chen, Y. L., Chen, I. S., Su, Y. S., & Yuan, G. F. (2013). Chemical constituents of red yeast rice fermented with the fungus Monascus pilosus. Chemistry Natural Compounds, 49, 249-252. DOI:
  9. Feng, L. H., Li, Y. Q., Sun, G. J., & Zhao, X. Z. (2019). Antibacterial effect of orange Monascus pigment against Staphylococcus AureusActa Alimentaria, 48, 169-176. DOI:
  10. Ferdes, M., Ungureanu, C., Radu, N., & Chirvase, A. A. (2009). Antimicrobial effect of Monascus purpureus red rice against some bacterial and fungal strains. ChemicalEngineeringTransactions, 17, 1149-1154. DOI:
  11. Hsu, L. C., Hsu, Y. W., Liang, Y. H., Liaw, C. C., Kuo, Y. H., & Pan, T. M. (2012). Induction of Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells MCF-7 by Monapurpyridine A, a New Azaphilone Derivative from Monascus purpureus NTU 568. Molecules,17, 664-673. DOI:
  12. Huang, Q., Zhang, H., & Xue D. (2017). Enhancement of antioxidant activity of Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice by mixed fermentation with Monascus purpureus. FoodChemistry, 17, 30021-3. DOI:
  13. Ji, Y. B., Xu, F., Liu, B. Y., Wei, Q., Guo, Y. Z., Dong, Y., Sun, Y., & Hu, Y. (2018). Trace phenolic compounds from Red Yeast Rice. China Journal Chinese Mater Medicine,43, 755-759.
  14. Lee, Y. L., Yang, J. H., & Mau, J. L. (2008). Antioxidant properties of water extracts from Monascus fermented soybeans. Food Chemistry, 106, 1128-1137. DOI:
  15. Lin, C. S., Hur, H. F., & Lin, C. C. (2019). Antioxidant properties and antibacterial activity of fermented Monascus purpureus extracts. MOJFoodProcessTechnology, 7, 49-54.
  16. Marova, I., Carnecka, M., Halienova, A., Certik, M., Dvorakova, T., & Haronikova, A. (2012). Use of several waste substrates for carotenoid-rich yeast biomass production. Journal Environmental Management,95,338-342. DOI:
  17. Mukherjee, G., & Kumar, S. (2011). Purification and characterization of a new red pigment from Monascus purpureus in submerged fermentation. Process Biochemistry, 46, 188-92. DOI:
  18. Olivero Verbel, J., González?Cervera, I., Güette?Fernandez J., Jaramillo-Colorado, B., & Stashenko, E. (2010). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils isolated from Colombian plants. Revistabrasileirafarmacognosia, 20, 568-574. DOI:
  19. Park, H. J., & Kim, I. S. (2011). Antioxidant Activities and Anticancer Effects of Red Yeast Rice Grown in the Medium Containing Garlic. Food Science Biotechnology,20, 297-302. DOI:
  20. Patakova, P., Branska, B., & Patrovsky, M. (2017). Monascus Secondary Metabolites. Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017 J.M. Mérillon, K.G. Ramawat (eds.), Fungal Metabolites, Reference Series in Phytochemistry, Book Chapter. DOI:
  21. Roy, K. (1967). Static extraction-novel extraction technique. Analytical Chemistry, 39,1903-04. DOI:
  22. Shokryazdan, P., Jahromi, M. F., Bashokouh, F., Idrus, Z., & Liang, J. B. (2018). Antiproliferation effects and anti-oxidant activity of two new Lactobacillus strains. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 21, e2016064. DOI:
  23. Smith, H., Doyle, S., & Murphy, R. (2015). Filamentous fungi as a source of natural antioxidants. Food Chemistry, 185, 389-397. DOI:
  24. Tan, H., Xing, Z., Chen, G., Tian, X., & Wu, Z. (2018). Evaluating Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Yellow Monascus Pigments from Monascus ruber Fermentation. Molecules, 23,3242. DOI:
  25. Thomas, L., Larroche, C., & Pandey, A. (2013). Current development in solid state fermentation. Biochemistry EngineeringJournal,81, 146-161. DOI:
  26. Tkaczyk, A., Mitrowska, K., &Posyniak, A.(2020). Synthetic organic dyes as contaminants of the aquatic environment and their implications for ecosystems: A review. Science of the total environment,15, 137222. DOI:
  27. Velmurugan, P., Hur, H., Balachandar, V., Kamala-Kannan, S., Lee, K. J., Lee, S. M, Chae, J. C., Shea, P. J., & Oh, B. T. (2011).Monascus pigment production by solid-state fermentation with corn cob substrate. Journal of Bioscience Bioengineering,112,590-594. DOI:
  28. Vendruscolo, F., Bühler, R. M. M., Carvalho, J. C. D., Oliveira, D. D., Moritz, D. E., Schmidell, W., & Ninow, J. L. (2016). Monascus: a Reality on the Production and Application of Microbial Pigments. Applied Biochemistry Biotechnology,178,211-223. DOI:
  29. Vendruscolo, F., Tosin, I., Giachini, A. J., Schmidell, W., & Ninow, J. L. (2014). Antimicrobial activity of Monascus pigments produced in submerged fermentation. JournalFoodProcessingPreservation, 38, 1860-1865. DOI:
  30. Wang, C., & Wixon, R. (1999). Phytochemicals in soybeans: Their potential health benefits. Inform, 10, 315-321.
  31. Weiss, B. (2012). Synthetic Food Colors and Neurobehavioral Hazards: The View from Environmental Health Research. Environmental Health Perspectives,120, 1-5. DOI:
  32. Wild, D., Gareis, M., & Humpf, H. U. (2002). Analyses of red fermented rice (angkak) and report of a new Monascus metabolite. Mycotoxin Research, 18, 212-216. DOI:
  33. Wu, H. C., Cheng M. J., Wu M. D., Chen J. J., Chen Y. L., & Chang H. S. (2019). Three new constituents from the fungus of Monascus purpureus and their anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemistry Letters, 31, 242-248. DOI:
  34. Xiao, Y., Wang, L. X., Rui, X., Chen, X. H., Jiang, M., & Dong, M. S. (2015). Enhancement of the antioxidant capacity of soy whey by fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum B1–6. Journal ofFunctionalFood, 12, 33-44. DOI:
  35. Yu, X., Wu, H., & Zhang, J. (2015). Effect of Monascus as a nitrite substitute on color, lipid oxidation, and proteolysis of fermented meat mince. Food Science Biotechnology24,575-581. DOI:
  36. Zhao, G., Li, Y. Q., Yang, J., & Cui, K. Y. (2016). Antibacterial Characteristics of Orange Pigment Extracted from Monascus Pigments against Escherichia coli. CzechJournal Food Science, 34, 197-203. DOI: