Main Article Content


Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. commonly identified as ‘rudraksha’, belonging to Elaeocarpaceae possess a great religious, spiritual and materialistic significance which is placed under the threatened category in the tropical wet evergreen forests of North East India. Because of its over-exploitation, poor germination, low viability rate and hard seed coat, an attempt has been done for mass production of planting materials through cuttings and air layering’s. Cuttings trials were conducted during three different periods, mid - March, mid – July and mid – November by using Indol butyric acid and Napthalene acetic acid of 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000 ppm where air layering’s were done during mid - May by treating IBA and NAA solution of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm in combination with para-hydroxybenzoic acid of 2000 ppm as synergist. Application of IBA and NAA of different concentration did not encourage the growth in the cuttings in all three periods. Air layering’s treated with NAA 1000 ppm+2000ppm para- hydroxy benzoic acid and IBA 500 ppm +2000ppm para- hydroxy benzoic acid resulted the highest and same value of callusing and rooting percent (70 and 66.67%), respectively while minimum callusing and rooting percentage (56.67 and 51.67%) was recorded in control. The present study focused on the mass production of planting materials in shorter duration with a reasonable cost for enhancing production as well as socio-economic conditions.


Air layering Callusing Indole-3-butyric acid Rudraksha Synergist

Article Details

How to Cite
Rai , A. ., Dey, A. N., Bhowmick, N. ., Panda, M. R. ., S. , D. ., & Sarkar, B. (2022). Impact of growth hormones on vegetative propagation of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb . Environment Conservation Journal, 23(1&2), 164–171.


  1. Abbas, G., Khattak, J. Z. K., Mir, A., Ishaque, M., Hussain, M., Alves-De Oliveira, A., Carlos-Koller, O., & Villegas-Monter, A. (1999). Vegetative propagation of 153 selection avocado (Persea sp.) by layering in container. Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura, 5, 221-225.
  2. Bhojvaid, P. P., & Negi, S. (2003). Propagation of Elaeocarpus ganitrus by air layering. Indian Forester, 129(10), 1185-1191.
  3. Bhuyan, P., Khan, M. L., & Tripathi, R. S. (2002). Regeneration status and population structure of Rudraksha (Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.) in relation to cultural disturbances in tropical wet evergreen forest of Arunachal Pradesh. Current Science, 83(11), 1391-1394.
  4. Coode, M. J. E. (2007). Elaeocarpaceae for flora Malesiana: New information on Elaeocarpus from Borneo and Sulawesi. Kew Bulletin, 62, 329-332.
  5. Colodi, F., Ramos, N., Zuffellato-Ribas, K., Ribas, L., & Koehler, H. (2008). Vegetative propagation of guaco with added napthalene acetic acid. Scientia Agraria, 9, 95-98. DOI:
  6. Dafni, A. (2006). On the typology and the worship status of sacred trees with special reference to the Middle East. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2, 26-29. DOI:
  7. Eganathan, P., Srinivasa, R. C., & Anand, A. (2000). Vegetative propagation of three mangrove tree species by cuttings and air layering. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 8, 281-286. DOI:
  8. Esmon, C. A., Tinsley, A. G., Ljung, K., Sandberg, G., Hearne, L. B., & Liscum E. (2006). A gradient of auxin and auxin-dependent transcription precedes tropic growth responses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United States of America, 103, 236-241. DOI:
  9. Gomez, K. A., & Gomez, A. A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, 2nd ed., John Willey and Sons, New York, 680.
  10. Hardainiyan, S., Nandy, B. C., & Saxena, R. (2015). Phytochemical investigation of fruit extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus. International Journal of Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Science, 7(6), 415-418.
  11. Hule, A. K. K., Shah, A. S., Gambhire, M. N., & Juvekar, A. R. (2011). An evaluation of the antidiabetic effects of Elaeocarpus ganitrus in experimental animals. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 43(1), 56-59. DOI:
  12. Khan, M. L., Bhuyan, P., & Tripathi, R. S. (2003). Regeneration of Rudraksha (Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.) a threatened tree species: germination strategies. International Journal of Ecology and Environment Science, 29, 255-260.
  13. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, an illustrated dictionary. Springer Science, Springer Verlag: Berlin/Heiddelberg, Germany, 232-233. DOI:
  14. Kumar, S., Deswal, M., & Laura, J. (2014). Study on seed germination and vegetative propagation of Salvadora oleoides Decne. International Journal of Current Research, 6, 8058-8062.
  15. Kumar, T. S., Shanmugam, S., Palvannan, T., & Kumar, V. M. B. (2008). Evaluation of antioxidant properties of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. leaves. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 73(3), 211-215.
  16. Li, F., Li, J., Liu, B., Zhuo, J., & Long, C. (2014). Seeds used for Bodhi beads in China. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 10, 1-8. DOI:
  17. Nain, J., Garg, K., & Dhahiya, S. (2012). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Elaeocarpus sphaericus leaf extract. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(1), 379-381.
  18. Nanda, K. K., & Kochar, V. K. (1985). Vegetative Propagation of Plants, Kalyani Publishers. New Delhi, India.
  19. Pandey, G., & Das, K. (2004). Ayurvedic series 48, Dravyaguna Vijnana (Materia Medica– vegetable drugs) Part – III (P-Y), Chowkhamba Krishanadas Academy, Varanasi, 261-262.
  20. Ramadurai, L. (2007). The Rudraksha tree, conservation of ecological heritage and sacred sites of India. ENVIS Newsletter, 6, 2.
  21. Reddy, K. V. R. (2004). Studies on the effect of growth regulators on rooting of Fig (Ficus carica L.) cuttings. M. Sc thesis, College of Agriculture, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.
  22. Sanchez, A., Suarez, E., Gonzalez, M., Amaya, Y., Colmenares, C., & Ortega, J. (2009). Effect of indole butyric acid on rooting of air layers of guava (Psidium guajava L.) in the municipalty Baralt, Venezuela. Evaliacion preliminary, Revista Cientifica UDO Agricola, 9, 113-120.
  23. Sakat, S. S., Wankhede, S. S., Juvekar, A. R., Pandey, V. B., Mali, V. R., & Bodhankar, S. L. (2009). Antihypertensive effects of aquous extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. seeds in renal artery occluded hypertensive rats. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research, 1(3), 779-782.
  24. Saklani, K., Singh, S., Purohit, V. K., Prasad, P., & Nautiyal, A. R. (2015). In vitro propagation of Rudraksha (Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum): a biotechnological approach for conservation. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 21(4), 611-615. DOI:
  25. Saravanan, S., Indra, M., Kamalraj, P., Venkatesh, D. R., & Muthuchelian, K. (2011). In -situ vegetative propagation of Elaeocarpus venustus Bedd. a threatened endemic tree of Agasthiamalai Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India. Journal of Bioscience Research, 2(2), 46-49.
  26. Singh, R. K., Acharya S. B., & Bhatttacharya S. K. (2000). Pharmacological activity of Elaeocarpus sphaericus. Phytotherapy Research, 14, 36-39. DOI:<36::AID-PTR541>3.0.CO;2-J
  27. Singh, S., Kumar, P., Mandal, A. K., & Ansari S. A. (2004). Air-layering of trees with differential adventitious rooting response. Indian Forester, 130, 318-322.
  28. Singh, B., Chopra, A., Ishar, N. P. S., Sharma, A., & Raj, T. (2010). Pharmacognostic and antifungal investigations of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudraksha). Indian Journal of Pharmacy Science, 72, 261-265. DOI:
  29. Singh, S., & Ansari, S. A. (2014). Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers of broadleaved tree species. Annals of Forest Research, 57, 47-54. DOI:
  30. Srivastava, P. K., Singh, T. S., & Singh, N. I. (2000). Clonal propagation of Quercus serrata Thunb. Syn. Q. acutissima carr.through air layering. Indian Forester, 126, 879-884.
  31. Swamy, S. L., Puri, S., & Singh, A. K. (2002). Effect of auxins (IBA and NAA) and season on rooting of juvenile and mature hardwood cuttings of Robinia pseudoacacia and Grewia optiva, New Forests, 23(2), 143–157. DOI:
  32. Tchoundjeu, Z., Avana, M., Leakey, R., Simons, A., Asaah, E., Duguma, B., & Bell, J. (2002). Vegetative of Prunus africana: Effects of rooting medium, auxin concentration and leaf area. Agroforestry Systems, 54, 183-192. DOI:
  33. Thakur, L. (2014). Studies on vegetative propagation of Acacia catechu wild and Toona ciliata M. Roemer. M.Sc. thesis, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, India.
  34. Tomar, A., & Singh, V. R. R. (2011). Effect of Air layering time (Season) with the aid of Indole butyric acid in Ficus krishnae and Ficus auriculata. Indian Forester, 137, 1363-1365.
  35. Yadav, J. P., Saini, S., & Kalia, A. N. (2006). Botanical, cytological, phytochemical and pharmacognostical studies on Salvadora species. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 28, 1-6.