Main Article Content


Nature does not discriminate and has no boundaries; however only developing nations faces huge food security issues and in such circumstances much of importance has been emphasised on food production technologies but studies and research on concealed factor behind food production i.e biogeochemical drivers were largely overlooked. Injudicious agricultural practices; for instance profound use of agrochemicals in continuous and unmonitored way may had already situate many soil microbial species in verge of extinction consequently creating ecological imbalance. With huge land pressure for crop production and lack of upto date technologies of preciseness, most of the developing nation which includes the whole of Africa, almost all Asian countries and numerous other island states faces the agricultural land degradation issues; one of the major reason for such degradation is missing out of ecological drivers i.e soil microbial diversity. Anthropogenic activities application of fertilisers, land use changes (LUC), land intensification, crop diversification, irrigation management etc accelerates the soil microbial community shifts and microbial diversity loss predominately in developing nations. In this short communication, we address the concerns faced by the developing nations to prevent the soil microbial community shift and diversity loss. Also we propose the each exported commodity may have specific tax included which may be utilised by soil scientist from developing nations for studying the current soil microbial shifts and diversity loss due to agriculture management practices more efficiently.


Soil microbial community shift Microbial Diversity Land Use Change (LUC) Biogeochemical drivers

Article Details

How to Cite
Kumar, A., Sahu, S. K. ., & J, J. (2021). Developing nation’s soil microbial community shifts and diversity loss: leading towards major ecological threat . Environment Conservation Journal, 22(3), 117–121.


  1. Acharya, M., Ashworth, A.J., Yang, Y., Burke, J.M., Lee, J.A. & Acharya, R.S. (2020). Soil microbial diversity in organic and non-organic pasture systems. PeerJ, 9, p.e11184. DOI:
  2. Bai, Y. C., Chang, Y. Y., Hussain, M., Lu, B., Zhang, J. P., Song, X. B., & Pei, D. (2020). Soil chemical and microbiological properties are changed by long-term chemical fertilizers that limit ecosystem functioning. Microorganisms, 8(5), 694. DOI:
  3. De Vries, F.T. & Shade, A., (2013). Controls on soil microbial community stability under climate change. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, .265. DOI:
  4. Deltedesco, E., Keiblinger, K. M., Piepho, H. P., Antonielli, L., Pötsch, E. M., Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S., & Gorfer, M. (2020). Soil microbial community structure and function mainly respond to indirect effects in a multifactorial climate manipulation experiment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 142, 107704. DOI:
  5. Dutta, H. & Dutta, A., (2016). The microbial aspect of climate change. Energy, Ecology and Environment, 1(4),209-232. DOI:
  6. Gautam, A., Sekaran, U., Guzman, J., Kovács, P., Hernandez, J. L. G., & Kumar, S. (2020). Responses of soil microbial community structure and enzymatic activities to long-term application of mineral fertilizer and beef manure. Environmental and Sustainability Indicators, 8, 100073. DOI:
  7. Hinz, R., Sulser, T. B., Hüfner, R., Mason?D’Croz, D., Dunston, S., Nautiyal, S., & Schaldach, R. (2020). Agricultural development and land use change in India: A scenario analysis of trade?offs between UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Earth's Future, 8(2), e2019EF001287. DOI:
  8. Hooper, D. U., Adair, E. C., Cardinale, B. J., Byrnes, J. E., Hungate, B. A., Matulich, K. L., & O’Connor, M. I. (2012). A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. Nature, 486(7401), 105-108. DOI:
  9. John, D. A., & Babu, G. R. (2021). Lessons from the aftermaths of green revolution on food system and health. Frontiers in sustainable food systems, 5. DOI:
  10. Kumar, A., Bhople, B. S., & Kumar, A. (2020). Prospective of Indian agriculture: highly vulnerable to huge unproductivity and unsustainability. Current Science, 119(7), 1079.
  11. Lacerda-Júnior, G.V., Noronha, M.F., Cabral, L., Delforno, T.P., de Sousa, S.T.P., Fernandes-Júnior, P.I., Melo, I.S. and Oliveira, V.M. (2019). Land use and seasonal effects on the soil microbiome of a Brazilian dry forest. Frontiers in microbiology, 10, p.648. DOI:
  12. Liao, J., Liang, Y., & Huang, D. (2018). Organic farming improves soil microbial abundance and diversity under greenhouse condition: A case study in Shanghai (Eastern China). Sustainability, 10(10), 3825. DOI:
  13. Lo, C.C., (2010). Effect of pesticides on soil microbial community. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B, 45(5),348-359. DOI:
  14. Lori, M., Symnaczik, S., Mäder, P., De Deyn, G., & Gattinger, A. (2017). Organic farming enhances soil microbial abundance and activity—A meta-analysis and meta-regression. PLoS One, 12(7), e0180442. DOI:
  15. Murphy, D. V., Cookson, W. R., Braimbridge, M., Marschner, P., Jones, D. L., Stockdale, E. A., & Abbott, L. K. (2011). Relationships between soil organic matter and the soil microbial biomass (size, functional diversity, and community structure) in crop and pasture systems in a semi-arid environment. Soil Research, 49(7), 582-594. DOI:
  16. Nelson, A. R. L. E., Ravichandran, K., & Antony, U. (2019). The impact of the Green Revolution on indigenous crops of India. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 6(1), 1-10. DOI:
  17. Pingali, P. L. (2012). Green revolution: impacts, limits, and the path ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(31), 12302-12308. DOI:
  18. Rahman, K. M., & Zhang, D. (2018). Effects of fertilizer broadcasting on the excessive use of inorganic fertilizers and environmental sustainability. Sustainability, 10(3), 759. DOI:
  19. Stefan, L., Hartmann, M., Engbersen, N., Six, J., & Schöb, C. (2021). Positive effects of crop diversity on productivity driven by changes in soil microbial composition. Frontiers in microbiology, 12, 808. DOI:
  20. Sui, X., Zhang, R., Frey, B., Yang, L., Li, M. H., & Ni, H. (2019). Land use change effects on diversity of soil bacterial, Acidobacterial and fungal communities in wetlands of the Sanjiang Plain, northeastern China. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-14. DOI:
  21. Wu, L., Jiang, Y., Zhao, F., He, X., Liu, H., & Yu, K. (2020). Increased organic fertilizer application and reduced chemical fertilizer application affect the soil properties and bacterial communities of grape rhizosphere soil. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-10. DOI:
  22. Wu, S. J., Deng, J. J., Yin, Y., Qin, S. J., Zhu, W. X., Zhou, Y. B., & Jin, L. (2020). Bacterial community changes associated with land use type in the forest montane region of northeast China. Forests, 11(1), 40. DOI:
  23. Yang, Y., Fang, M., Wu, M., Zhang, H., Li, H., & Zhu, J. (2020). Differences in the soil bacterial community under organic farming and conventional farming modes revealed by 16S rDNA sequencing. DOI:
  24. Zhou, Z., Wang, C., & Luo, Y. (2020). Meta-analysis of the impacts of global change factors on soil microbial diversity and functionality. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-10. DOI: