Main Article Content


Acanthocephalan fauna are  distributed globally as visceral parasites of vertebrates and arthropods. Morphological description of four known species of the newly described class Polyacanthocephala has been replete with controversies. However,  Mitochondrial  COI  gene  of  two  new  cystacanths  sequences;  Polyacanthorhynchus nigerianus  n.sp.  (NG1 KC904074)  and  Polyacanthorhynchus  echiyensis  n.sp.  (NG5   KC904075)  infecting  some  parentenic  individuals  of Synodontis batensoda in Nigeria were sequenced. The resulting sequences were aligned with 36  other sequences of acanthocephalans  representing   three   widely   recognized   classes;   Archiacanthocephala,  Palaeacanthocephala  and Eoacanthocephala.   The   only   representative   of   the   new   class   Polyacanthocephala   in   the   GenBank/NCBI Polyacanthorhynchus caballeroi (DQ089724) formed a common clade with these two new sequences. This study thus supports existence of the new class Polyacanthocephala as an independent class within Acanthocephala.


COI gene gene data base parasites Synodontis batensoda

Article Details

How to Cite
Echi, P. . . . . ., Suresh, K. ., Sanil, G. ., Iyaji, F. ., Nwani, C. . ., & Ejere, V. . (2015). Mitochondrial DNA resolution of two new sequences Polyacanthorhynchus echiyensis n. sp. and Polyacanthorhynchus nigerianus n. sp. (Polyacanthocephala: Acanthocephala) in a parentenic host from a tropical River. Environment Conservation Journal, 16(1&2), 13–17.


  1. Amin, O.M. 1987. Key to the families and subfamilies of Acanthocephala with the erection of a new class (Polyacanthocephala) and a new order (Polyacanthorhynchida). J of Parasitol, 73: 1216 - 1219.
  2. Amin, O. M and Dezfuli,S.B. 1995. Taxonomic notes on Polyacanthocephala kenyensis (Acanthocephala: Polyacanthorhynchidae) from Lake Naivasha, Kenya. J of Parasitol, 81: 76 - 79.
  3. Echi, P. C and Ezenwaji, H. M. G. 2010. The parasites fauna of characids’ (Osteichthyes: Characidae) Anambra River, Nigeria. Afr J of Ecol, 48: 1 - 4.
  4. Elsasser S.C., Floyd, R., Hebert, P.D and Schulte-Hostedde, A. I. 2009. Species identification of North American guinea worms (Nematoda: Dracunculus) with DNA barcoding. Mol Ecol Res, 9:707-712.
  5. Gracia-Varela, M., Cummings, M. P., Pe´rez-Ponce, D. L. G., Gardner, S. L and Laclettea, P. J. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences supports the existence of class polyacanthocephala (acanthocephala). Mol Phylo and Evol, 23: 288 - 292.
  6. Gracia-Varela, M and Nadler, S. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of Palaeacanthocephala (Acanthocephala) inferred from SSU LSU rDNA gene sequences. J of Parasitol, 91:1401-1409.
  7. Garey, J., Near, T., Nonnemacher, M and Nadler, S. 1996. Molecular evidence of Acanthocephala as a subtaxon of Rotifera. J of Mol Evol, 43: 287-292.
  8. Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S.L and Dewaard, J.R. 2003a. Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,270: 313-321.
  9. Locke, S. A, Mclaughlin, J. D and Macroglose, D. J. 2010. DNA barcodes show cryptic diversity and a potential physiological basis for host specificity among Diplostomoidea (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) parasitizing freshwater fish in the St Lawrence River canal. Mol Ecol Res, 19: 2813-2827.
  10. Marek, S., Zie, T and Jaakko, L. 2002. Speciation by host switch and adaptive radiation in a fish parasite genus Gyrodactylus (monogenea, gyrodactylidae). Evol, 56:2445–2458.
  11. Monks, S and Richardson, D. J. 2011. Phylum Acanthocephala Kohlreuther, 1771 In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootax, 3148: 234–237.
  12. Near, J. T., Garey, J. R and Nadler, S. A. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of the acanthocephala inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences. Mol Phyl and Evol, 10: 287–298.
  13. Perkins, S., Martinsen, E and Falk, B. 2011. Do molecules matter more than morphology? Promises and Pitfalls in parasites. Parasitol, 138: 1664-1674.
  14. Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M and Kumar, S. 2011. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Mol Biol and Evol, 28: 2731-2739.
  15. Van Cleave, H. 1936. Recognition of a new order in the Acanthocephala. J of Parasitol, 22: 202-206.
  16. Verweyen, L., Klimpel, S and Palm, H. 2011. Molecular phylogeny of the Acanthocphala (Classs Palaeacanthocephala) with paraphyletic assemblage of the orders Polymorphida and Echinorhynchida. PLo, 6: e28285.
  17. Ward, R. D., Hanner, R and Hebert, P. D. N. 2009. The campaign to DNA barcode all fishes, FISH-BOL. J of Fish Biol, 74: 329-356.
  18. Waters, J. M and Cambray, J. A. 1997. Intraspecific phylogeography of the Cape galaxias from South Africa: evidence from mitochondrial DNA sequences. J of Fish Biol, 50: 1329-1338.