Main Article Content


Typhoid fever in rural areas of India is the commonest problem which is associated with poor hygiene, unavailability of treated water and poor sanitation. Typhoid is not a problem of the single country; it is a global health problem. The severity of disease increase due to an increase of drug resistance in Salmonella spp., delay in diagnosis and administration of the appropriate antibiotic. The present study was carried out to study the prevalence of typhoid in Saharanpur District, Uttar Pradesh. The serum samples of the patient who had complain of high fever, abdominal pain, and disturbed gastrointestinal tract were investigated for Salmonella infection by Widal test in which O and H antigen were reacted with serum. The result shows that out of the 858 samples received for the typhoid detection 746 (86.9%) samples were found positive for typhoid antigen and 112 (13%) samples are nonreactive for Salmonella antigen O and H antigen. The study also focused on gender distribution of typhoid, it was found that 423 (57%) females out of 746 positive cases are positive for Salmonella as compared to the male which was only 323 (43%) out of 746 positive cases. Most susceptible age group was 21-30 year followed by 31-40 year. The positive blood samples are also subjected to isolation of Salmonella after drawing serum from the test tube. The clot was ruptured by sterile inoculating needle and then enrichment broth 10 ml was added and incubated at 37oC for 24-48 hour. After showing turbidity one loopful of inoculums is plated on Selective media such as Hecktoen Enteric Agar, MacConkey Agar, XLD (Xylose Lysine Decarboxylase), DCA (Deoxycholate Citrate Agar). On the basis of culture characteristic and biochemical reaction, 194 Salmonella spp. was isolated from 746 positive samples.


Salmonella typhi Typhoid fever Widal test

Article Details

How to Cite
Rana, K. ., & Chandra , H. . (2017). Prevalence of typhoid in the rural community of Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh) India. Environment Conservation Journal, 18(1&2), 121–125.


  1. Ackers, M. L., Puhr, M. D., Tauxe, R. V and Mintz, E. D. 2000. Laboratory based surveillance of Salmonella serotype Typhi infections in the United States: antimicrobial resistance on the rise. JAMA., 283, 2668–2673.
  2. Adesunkanmi, A.R.K and Ajao O. G. 1997. Prognostic factors in typhoid ileal perforation: a prospective study in 50 patients. J R Coll Surg Edinb., 42:395-399.
  3. Al-Quarawi S.M., El-Bushra Fontaine R.E., Bubshait S.A and El Tantawy N.A. 1995. Typhoid fever from water desalinized using reverse osmosis. Epidem. Infect. 114, 41-50.
  4. Cabello, F and Springer, A.D. 1997. Typhoid fever in Chile. 1977-90: an emergent disease. Revista Medica de Chile., 125, 474-482.
  5. Cappuccino G .James and Sherman Natalie. 2005. Microbiology A laboratory manual, seventh edition, Pearson Education.
  6. Chandra, H., Singh, B., Srivastava, J., Prasad, R., Nautiyal, A.R. 2010. Seroprevalence of Typhoid in DehradunValley (Uttarakhand), India. Res Environ Life Sci., 3(2):65-68.
  7. Cruickshank, R .1965. Medical Microbiology, 11th Edition p.907.
  8. Crump, J.A., Luby, S.P., Mintz, E.D. 2004. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ., 82: 346–353.
  9. Everest, P., Wain, J., Roberts, M., Rook, G and Dougan, G. 2001. The molecular mechanism of severe typhoid fever. Trends Microbiol., 9(7):316-320.
  10. Ezeigbo, O.R., Agomoh, N. G and Asuoha-Chuks, N.2015.Laboratory Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever using Widal and Blood culture Methods in Aba, Southeastern Nigeria. Am J Microbiol Res., 3(6): 181-183.
  11. Madhulika, U., Harish, B. N. and Parija, S. C. 2004. Current pattern in antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi isolates in Pondicherry. Indian J Med Res., 120, 111–114.
  12. Murray, P.R. and Shea, Y.R.2004. Bacterial diagnosis. In: Pocket Guide to Clinical Microbiology, 3rd Edition. pp. 135-137.
  13. Otegbayo, J.A.2005. Typhoid fever: The challenges of Medical management. Annals of Ibadan Post Graduate Medicine., 3(1):60-62.
  14. Paniker, C. K. J and Vimla, K. N. 1972. Transferable Chloramphenicol resistance in Salmonella Typhi. Nature., 239, 109–110.
  15. Parry C.M., Hien T.T., Dougan, G., White N.J and Farrer, J. 2002. Typhoid fever. N Engl J Med., 347:1770– 1782.
  16. Saha, M.R., Dutta, P., Bhattacharya, S.K., Rasaily, R., Mitra, U, Dutta, D., Bhattacharya M.K and Pal S.C.1992. Occurrence of multidrug resistant Salmonellatyphi in Calcutta. Indian J Med Res., 95: 179– 180.
  17. Sanjeev, H., Nayak, S., Pai Asha, K.B., Rai, R., Karnaker, V and Ganesh, H.R.2013. A systematic evaluation of rapid dot-EIA, blood culture and Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Nitte Univ J Health Sci., 3(1): 21-24.
  18. Shrivastav, D, Jain, A. K., Gharde, P., Sharma, D. B. and Verma R. S. 2014. Typhoid intestinal perforation in Central India – A surgical experience of 155 cases in resource limited setting. Int J Biomed Advance Res., 5(12):600-604.
  19. Wain, J and Kidgell, C. 2004. The emergence of multidrug resistance to antimicrobials agents for the treatment of typhoid fever. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg., 98:423– 430.
  20. WHO 2008. Weekly Epidemiological Record, No. 6, 8th Feb, 2008.
  21. WHO and UNICEF. 2000. Global assessment of water supply and sanitation. UNICEF, New York and WHO, Geneva
  22. WHO and UNICEF.2008. Progress on drinking water and sanitation. UNICEF, New York and WHO, Geneva
  23. World Health Organization 2003. Background Document: The Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Typhoid Fever. WHO document7 Geneva WHO/V and B/03.07.