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The present study was conducted with the aim of examining the most relevant constraints, challenges, and experiences of RAS fish farmers in the state of Haryana state of India. Over the course of a year, extensive surveys were conducted among 20 RAS farms in various districts of the Haryana Region, i.e., Ambala, Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Gurgaon, Hisar, Jind, Kaithal, Karnal, Rohtak, Rewari, and Sonipat. These farmers were interviewed face to face using a questionnaire that combined closed- and open-ended questions to gather valuable insight. The results revealed several common constraints faced by RAS farmers in Haryana. The most significant challenges that farmers faced included disease outbreaks (50%), seed quality issues (45%), lack of knowledge about RAS (35%), and misguidance (5%). Additionally, farmers reported difficulties in seed transportation (10%), and approximately 70% of the farmers emphasized the critical need for specialized training in RAS operations. Moreover, 50% of the farmers considered the lack of information regarding suitable fish species for RAS to be a major problem. In terms of RAS equipment, drum filters (35%) and MBBR media (30%) were the most common malfunctioning components for fish farmers, while 55% of the farmers experienced no default in their RAS systems. Moreover, this research revealed that Haryana farmers are interested in the adoption of RAS technology and are interested in a prototype farm with professional guidance to promote its adoption.


Challenges Fish farmers Haryana Ras Disease outbreak Drum filters

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How to Cite
Singh, P., Gulati, R., Sharma, R., & Lowanshi, A. (2024). Constraints and challenges of fish farmers with a recirculatory aquaculture system (RAS) in Haryana State, India. Environment Conservation Journal, 25(2), 483–487.


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