Main Article Content


In this study, the ability of the Quick-DNA™ Tissue/Insect Miniprep Kit and Chelex® methods to extract DNA from O. niloticus skin, muscle, and gill tissue was compared. The quantity and purity of the DNA were measured with a NanoDrop spectrophotometer. Based on the results obtained, it appears that the DNA extracted using the Kit has good quality based on A260/280 (1.67–1.98), and the Chelex method (1.52-1.81) was acceptable. ANOVA for the amount of nucleic acid revealed a significant difference between muscle and skin with gill tissue (P < 0.05). However, the skin of O. niloticus subjected to both methods was the best at extracting DNA (1.89-1.81). The extracted DNA was also studied by 28S ribosomal DNA and COI of mitochondrial DNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rDNA and COI of mtDNA placed the South African population of O. niloticus in a clade with other related species with a posterior probability value of 1.00. Finally, the molecular results showed that 28S ribosomal DNA is a suitable marker for the identification of O. niloticus. In conclusion, precise identification of O. niloticus is critical for breeding for farmers and commercial sectors.


DNA extraction Fish mtDNA Oreochromis niloticus Phylogeny rDNA

Article Details

How to Cite
Aminisarteshnizi, M., & Moyo, N. A. G. (2024). Evaluation of DNA quality and molecular observation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Limpopo Province, South Africa. Environment Conservation Journal, 25(2), 376–383.


  1. Addinsoft (2007). XLSTAT, Analyze de données et statistique avec MS Excel. Addinsoft, NY, USA.
  2. Aminisarteshnizi, M. (2022). Comparison between two different DNA extraction methods to obtain high DNA quality from Astacus leptodactylus. Egypt J Aquat Biol Fish, 26(2), 489-494. DOI:
  3. Ardura, A., Pola, I. G., Linde, A. R., & Garcia-Vazquez, E. (2010). DNA-based methods for species authentication of Amazonian commercial fish. Food Res Int, 43, 2295–2302. DOI:
  4. Besbes, N., Fattouch, S., & Sadok, S. (2011). Comparison of methods in the recovery and amplificability of DNA from fresh and processed sardine and anchovy muscle tissues. Food Chem, 129, 665–671. DOI:
  5. Casquet, J., Thebaud, C., & Gillespie, R. G. (2012). Chelex without boiling, a rapid and easy technique to obtain stable amplifiable DNA from small amounts of ethanol-stored spiders. Mol Ecol Resour, 12, 136–141. DOI:
  6. Darriba, D., Taboada, G. L., Doallo, R., & Posada, D. (2012). jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods, 9, 772. DOI:
  7. Dunz, A. R., Schliewen, U. K. (2013). Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the haplotilapiine cichlid fishes formerly referred to as "Tilapia". Mol Phylogenet Evol, 68(1), 64-80. DOI:
  8. Ekerette, E., Ikpeme, E., Udensi, O., Ozoje, M., Etukudo, O., Umoyen, A., Durosaro, S., & Wheto, M. (2018). Phylogenetics and Molecular Divergence of Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis Species) Using Mitochondrial D-Loop and Cytochrome b Regions. Am J Mol Biol, 8, 39-57. DOI:
  9. Hall, T. A. (1999). BioEdit: A user-friendly biological sequence alignment and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acid Symp Ser, 41, 95–98.
  10. Hlophe, S. N., & Moyo, N. A. G. (2014). A comparative study on the use of Pennisetum clandestinum and Moringa oleifera as protein sources in the diet of the herbivorous Tilapia rendalli. Aquac Int, 22, 1245–1262. DOI:
  11. Hlophe, S. N., Moyo, N. A. G. (2011). The effect of different plant diets on the growth performance, gastric evacuation rate, and carcass composition of Tilapia rendalli. Asian J Anim Vet Adv, 6(10), 1001–1009. DOI:
  12. Khoirunnisa, V., Andayani, N., & Maryanto, A. E. (2018). Comparison of two rapid DNA extraction for DNA based
  13. identification from fish fillet products. Life Environ Sci Aca Forum, 538, 012027.
  14. Lucentini, L., Caporali, S., Palomba, A., Lancioni, H., & Panara, F. (2006). A comparison of conservative DNA extraction methods from fins and scales of freshwater fish: A useful tool for conservation genetics. Conserv Genet, 7, 1009–1012. DOI:
  15. Martins, S., Oliveira, C., Wasko, A. P., & Wright, J. M. (2004). Physical mapping of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) genome by fluorescent in situ hybridization of repetitive DNAs to metaphase chromosomes—a review. Aquaculture, 231, 37-49. DOI:
  16. Montero-Pau, J., Gómez, A., & Muñoz, J. (2008). Application of an inexpensive and high-throughput genomic DNA extraction method for the molecular ecology of zooplanktonic diapausing eggs. L&O Methods, 6, 218–222. DOI:
  17. Moyo, N. A. G., & Rapatsa, M. M. (2021). A review of the factors affecting tilapia aquaculture production in Southern Africa. Aquaculture, 535, 736386 DOI:
  18. Perina, A., Seoane, D., González-Tizón, A. M. et al. (2011). Molecular organization and phylogenetic analysis of 5S rDNA in crustaceans of the genus Pollicipesreveal birth-and-death evolution and strong purifying selection. BMC Evol Biol, 11, 304 DOI:
  19. Ronquist, F., & Huelsenbeck, J. (2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics, 19, 1572-1574 DOI:
  20. Shokoohi, E., & Eisenback, J. (2023). Description of Anaplectus deconincki n. sp. from South Africa. J Helminthol, 3, 97: e52. DOI:
  21. Shokoohi, E., Ablafia, J., Swart, A., Moyo, N., & Eisenback, J. (2023). Mesorhditis sudafricana n. sp. (Rhabditida, Mesorhabditidae) is a new species with a short tail from South Africa. Nematology (published online ahead of print 2023) DOI:
  22. Soliman, T., Aly, W., Fahim, R. M., Berumen, M. L., Jenke-Kodama, H., Bernardi, G. (2017). Comparative population genetic structure of redbelly tilapia (Coptodon zillii (Gervais,1848)) from three different aquatic habitats in Egypt. Ecol Evol, 157(24), 11092- 11099. DOI:
  23. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G., & Gibson, T. J. (1994). Clustal W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res, 22, 4673–80. DOI:
  24. Yue, G.H., & Orban, L. (2001). DNA was rapidly isolated from fresh and preserved fish scales for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mar Biotechnol, 3(3), 199-204. DOI: