Main Article Content


An experiment was undertaken on 18 Asian elephants to study the effect of oral probiotics on body measurements for two months. Simultaneously, the efficacy of existing prediction equations and allometric relationship of heart girth-body weight (BW), height-forefoot circumference (FFC) and height-body weight were also observed. The animals were divided into three groups, with six each. The experimental probiotics; Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were supplemented @ 1 gm 1 × 109 cfu/gm for every 50 kg BW/day to the elephants of LACTO (T2) and SAC (T3) groups, respectively, whereas no probiotic was given to the control group. Heart girth was measured four times, on days 0, 20, 50 and 60 of the experiment to determine BW. Other morphometric estimations, like length, height, hind girth, and FFC were documented once, at the end of study. The data of heart girth and body weight revealed non-significant effect of the treatment. Irrespective of probiotics treatment, allometric parameters such as heart girth-body weight and height-FFC showed an isometric relationship whereas, the height-body weight relationship wasn’t found to yield an equivalent accuracy. The equations involving heart girth and FFC were observed to be most authentic to calculate BW and height, respectively.


Allometric Asian elephant Isometric relationship Morphometric measurements Nutritional status Probiotics

Article Details

How to Cite
Chharang, D., & Choudhary, S. (2022). Efficacy of oral probiotics on morphometric measurements and their allometric relationships in Asian elephants. Environment Conservation Journal, 23(3), 102–107.


  1. Agazzi, A., Ferroni, M., Fanelli, A., Maroccolo, S., Invernizzi, G., Dell’Orto, V. & Savoini, G. (2011). Evaluation of the Effects of Live Yeast Supplementation on Apparent Digestibility of High-Fiber Diet in Mature Horses Using the Acid Insoluble Ash Marker Modified Method. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 31, 13-18. DOI:
  2. Ahmed, K.D., Omar, A.A., Alrawi, S.T.J., Razzaq, Y.A.A., Mahmud, D.A., Naif, N.L. & Odeh, A.A. (2019). Effect of using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the some production traits and carcass characters of the local rabbits. Plant Archives, 19(2), 895-897.
  3. Alayande, K.A., Aiyegoro, O.A. & Ateba, C.N. (2020). Probiotics in Animal Husbandry: Applicability and Associated Risk Factors. Sustainability, 12, 1087. doi:10.3390/ su12031087 DOI:
  4. Anzai, H., Oishi, K., Kumagai, H., Hosoi, E., Nakanishi, Y. & Hirooka, H. (2017). Interspecific comparison of allometry between body weight and chest girth in domestic bovids. Scientific Reports, 7, 4817. DOI:
  5. De Cesare, A., Sirri, F., Manfreda, G., Moniaci, P., Giardini, A., Zampiga, M. & Meluzzi, A. (2017). Effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) on caecum microbioma and productive performance in broiler chickens. PLoS One, 12, e0176309. DOI:
  6. El-Badawi, A.Y. (2018). Growth performance of male NZW rabbits fed diets supplemented with beneficial bacteria or live yeast. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 19(5), 220-226.
  7. Freeman, H.G. & King, J.M. (1969). Relations amongst various linear measurements and weight for black rhinoceroses in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 7, 67-72. DOI:
  8. Hamad, E.M., Sato, M., Uzu, K., Yoshida, T., Higashi, S., Kawakami, H. & Imaizumi, K. (2009). Milk fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 influences adipocyte size via inhibition of dietary fat absorption in Zucker rats. British Journal of Nutrition, 101, 716-724. DOI:
  9. Hanks, J. (1972). Growth of the African elephant (Loxodonta Africana). East African Wildlife Journal, 10, 251-272. DOI:
  10. Hile, M.E., Hintz, H.F. & Erb, H.N. (1997). Predicting body weight from body measurements in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 28(4), 424-27.
  11. Kanchanapangka, S., Supawong, S., Koedlab, K., Kaewpannarai, J., Khawnual, P., Tummaruk, P. & Sajjarengpong, K. (2007). Body weight formulation in Asian elephant. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 37, 49-58.
  12. Karimi, G., Jamaluddin, R. & Parvaneh, K. (2013). The Effects of Probiotics on Body Weight and Biomarkers of Animal. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 12(8), 793-799. DOI:
  13. Koeppel, K.N. (2004). The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), M.Sc. Thesis submitted to University of Pretoria, South Africa.
  14. Lesosky, M., Dumas, S., Conradie, H., Handel, I.G., Jennings, A., Thumbi, S., Toye, P. & Bronsvoort, B.M.D.C. (2012). A live weight-heart girth relationship for accurate dosing of east African shorthorn zebu cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production, content/0049–4747/ DOI:
  15. Marelli, S.P., Fusi, E., Giardini, A., Martino, P.A., Polli, M., Bruni & Rizzi, R. (2020). Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) on the nutritional and health status of boxer dogs. Veterin Record, 187(4), vetrec-2019-105434. doi:10.1136/vr.105434 DOI:
  16. MoEF & CC (2008). Guidelines for care and management of captive elephants. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India, New Delhi, India.
  17. Snedecor, G.W. & Cochran, W.C. (2004). Statistical methods, 8th ed. Oxford and IBH publishing company, Kolkata, India.
  18. Sreekumar, K.P. & Nirmalan, G. (1989). Estimation of body weight in Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus). Veterinary Research Communications, 13, 3-9. DOI:
  19. Sukumar, R., Joshi, N.V. & Krishnamurthy, V. (1988). Growth in the Asian elephant. Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Sciences), 97(6), 561-571. DOI: