Main Article Content


The urban population interact with their environment and change it through the consumption of resources. The changed condition may impact the wellbeing and life nature of the urban population. The uncontrollable growth of urbanization has been reported to be dangerous for mental health and sanity of many citizens. Urban areas whether small or megacities each generate an ecological foot print.The present day urbanization, consequently requires a sustainable development pattern and changes in present day styles of boom to cause them to be more equitable and more resource and energy efficientAs of now, urban administration is to a great extent concentrated on single issues, for example, water, transportation, or waste. A multi scale administration framework that expressly inscribes interconnected asset chains and interconnected spots is essential as a way to transition closer to sustainable urbanizationwhich require, prevention of urban pollution, decreasing production capacity and supporting recycling, while discouraging non-profit development and fading poor and rich differences. . Therefore, the present study was conducted to clarify the effect of urbanization on the environmental quality, resource use and sustainability. The study conducted throughout the globe indicated sustainable urbanization can be achieved by following concept of development wherein natural resources are restored and not replaced by technology.


Air pollution Ecological Footprint Sustainability indicators Urban stream syndrome

Article Details

How to Cite
Pandit, J., & Sharma, A. K. (2022). Urbanization’s environmental imprint: A review . Environment Conservation Journal, 23(3), 168–177.


  1. Aguilar, A.G., Flores, M.A., and Lara L.F. (2022). Peri-Urbanization and Land Use Fragmentation in Mexico City. Informality, Environmental Deterioration, and Ineffective Urban Policy. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, doi: 10.3389/frsc.2022.790474. DOI:
  2. Alam, P., and Ahmade, K. (2013).Impact of Solid Waste on Health and the Environment.International Journal of Sustainable Development and Green Economics, 2(1), 165-168.
  3. Assennato, F., Smiraglia, D., Cavalli, A., Congedo, L., Giuliani, C., Riitano, N., Strollo, A., and Munafò, M. (2022). The Impact of Urbanization on Land: A Biophysical-Based Assessment of Ecosystem Services Loss Supported by Remote Sensed Indicators. Land, 11(236) 10.3390/land11020236 DOI:
  4. Alberti, M. (2005). The effects of urban patterns on ecosystem function. International Regional Science Review, 28, l68-192. DOI:
  5. Amato, F., Cassee, F.R., Vandergon, H.A.C.D., Gehrig, R., Gustafsson, M., Hafner, W., Harrison, R.M., Jozwicka, M., Kelly, F.J., Moreno, T., Prevot, A.S.H., Schaap, M., Sunyer, J., and Querol, X. (2014). Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non–exhaust emissions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 275(1), 31–36. DOI:
  6. Arnfield, A.J. (2003). Two decades of urban climate research: A review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. International Journal of Climatology,23(1), 1–26. DOI:
  7. Aronson, M.F.J., La Sorte, F.A.,Nilon, C.H.,Katti, M., and Goddard, M.A. (2014). A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers. Proceedings of Royal Society Biological Sciences 281, 20133330. DOI:
  8. Arouri, M.E.H., Youssef, A.B.,Nguyenviet, C and Soucat, A. (2014).Effects of Urbanization on Economic Growth and Human Capital Formation in Africa. PGDA Working Paper No. 119.
  9. Badami, M.G. (2005).Transport and urban air pollution in India. Environmental Management, 36, 195–204. DOI:
  10. Bartone., Carl, R., Bernstein, J., and Leitmann, J. (1992).Managing the Environmental Challenge of Mega-Urban Regions. In: International Conference on Managing the Mega-Urban Regions of ASEAN Countries: Policy Challenges and Responses. Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology, 30 November–3 December
  11. Bierwagen, B.G. (2007). Connectivity in urbanizing landscapes: The importance of habitat configuration, urban area size, and dispersal. Urban Ecosystems,10, 29-42. DOI:
  12. Blair, R.B., and Launer, A.E. (1997). Butterfly diversity and human land use: Species assemblages along an urban gradient. Biological Conservation, 80, 113–125. DOI:
  13. Blair, R.B. (2001). Birds and butterflies along urban gradients in two ecoregions of the U.S. In: Lockwood JL, McKinney ML, eds. Biotic Homogenization. Norwell (MA), Kluwer 33-56 pp. DOI:
  14. Booth, D.B., Karr, J.R.,Schauman, S.,Konrad, C.P., Morley, S.A., Larson, M.G., and Burges, S.J. (2004). Reviving urban streams: Land use, hydrology, biology, and human behavior. Journal ofthe American Water Resources Association, 40 (5), 1351–1364. DOI:
  15. Brion, N.,Verbanck, MA.,Bauwens, W.,Elskens, M., Chen, M., and Servais, P. (2015). Assessing the impacts of wastewater treatment implementation on the water quality of a small urban river over the past 40 years. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(1), 12720–12736. DOI:
  16. Chowdhury, A.R. (2013). Good News & Bad News, Clearing the Air in Indian Cities, Centre for Science and Environment.
  17. Cohen, B. (2006). Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability. Technology in Society, 28, 63–80. DOI:
  18. Galli, A.,Wackernagel, M.,Iha, K., and Lazarus, E. (2014). Ecological footprint: implications for biodiversity. Biological Conservation, 173, 121-132. DOI:
  19. Gelbard, A.,Haub, C., and Kent, M.M. (1999). World Population Beyond Six Billion, Population Bulletin 54(1), 1-44.
  20. Goudie, A.(1997). The Human Impact Reader: Readings and Case Studies. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 472 pp.
  21. Grimm, N.B.,Faeth, S.H.,Golubiewski, N.E., Redman, C.L., Wu, J., Bai, X., and Briggs, J.M. (2008).Global change and the ecology of cities.Science, 319 (5864): 756–760. DOI:
  22. Groppo, J.D.,Demoraes, J.M.,Beduschi, C.E.,Genovez, A.M., and Martinelli, L.A. (2008).Trend analysis of water quality in some rivers with different degrees of development within the São Paulo State, Brazil.River Research and Applications, 24, 1056–1067. DOI:
  23. Gulia, S., Nagendra, S.M.S.,Khare, M., and Khanna, I. (2015).Urban air quality management–A review.Atmospheric Pollution Research, 6, 286-304. DOI:
  24. Han, L., Zhou, W., Pickett, STA., Li, W., and Li, L. (2016).An optimum city size?The scaling relationship for urban population and fine particulate (PM2.5) concentration.Environmental Pollution, 208, 96–101. DOI:
  25. Hernándezmoreno, S., and Dehoyosmartínez, J. (2010).Indicators of urban sustainability in Mexico.Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, 7(16), 46-60.
  26. IPCC.(1996). Report of the twelfth season of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mexico City, 11–13 Sept 1996
  27. IPCC.(2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva.
  28. Jabareen, Y. (2013). Planning the resilient city: concepts and strategies for coping with climate change and environmental risk.Cities, 31, 220–29. DOI:
  29. Kandlikar, M. (2007). Air pollution at a hotspot location in Delhi: Detecting trends, seasonal cycles and oscillations. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 5934–5947. DOI:
  30. Keivani, R. (2010). A review of the main challenges to urban sustainability.International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 1, 5–16. DOI:
  31. Keyfitz, N. (1989). “Impact of Trends in Resources, Environment and Development on Demographic Prospects,” in Population and Resources in a Changing World, ed. Kingsley Davis et al. Stanford, CA: Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies.
  32. Kotharkar, R.,Bahadure, S.,Bahadure, P., and Surawar, M. (2011). Measurability for Sustainable Urban Development: Concept to Application. ABACUS Journal of Architecture, Conservation and Urban Studies 7(2),72-87.
  33. Kowarik, I. (1995).On the role of alien species in urban flora and vegetation. In: Pysek P, Prach K, Rejmánek M, Wade PM, eds. Plant Invasions— General Aspects and Special Problems. Amsterdam (Netherlands): SPB Academic 85-103pp.
  34. Kumar, S., Smith, S.R., Fowler, G., Velis, C., Kumar, SJ., Arya, S., Rena., Kumar, R., and Cheeseman, C. (2017). Challenges and opportunities associated with waste management in India. Royal Society Open Science) 4, 160764. DOI:
  35. Kurunthachalam, S.K. (2013). Indian Waters: Past and Present. Hydrology Current Reseach S10: 001. doi:10.4172/2157-7587.S10-001 DOI:
  36. Ma, J.Z., Ding, Z.Y., Wei, G.X., Zhao, H., and Huang, T.M. (2009).Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the Wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China.Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 1168–1177. DOI:
  37. Mallin, M.A., Johnson, V.L., and Ensign, S.H. (2016).Comparative impacts of stormwater runoff on water quality of an urban, a suburban, and a rural stream.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,159, 475–491. DOI:
  38. Manisalidis, I.,Stavropoulou, E., Stavropoulos, A., and Bezirtzoglou, E. (2020). Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review. Front. Public Health 8(14), 1-13. DOI:
  39. Marzluff, J.M. (2001).Worldwide urbanization and its effects on birds. In: Marzluff JM, Bowman R, Donnelly R, eds. Avian Ecology in an Urbanizing World. Norwell (MA): Kluwer 19-47 pp. DOI:
  40. McKinney, M.L. (2008). Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosystems,11(2), 161-176. DOI:
  41. McKinney, M.L. (2002). Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation.BioScience,52(10),883-890. DOI:[0883:UBAC]2.0.CO;2
  42. Meyfroidt, P.,Lambin, E.F.,Erb, K.H., and Hertel, T.W. (2013). Globalization of land use: distant drivers of land change and geographic displacement of land use. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5, 438–444. DOI:
  43. Modak, P.,Jiemian, Y.,Hongyuan, Yu., and Mohanty, C.R. (2010).Municipal solid waste management: turning waste into resources. In Shanghai manual: a guide for sustainable urban development in the 21st century, 1–36 pp.
  44. Moussiopoulos, N.,Achillas, C.,Vlachokostas, C.,Spyridi, D., and Nikolaou, K. (2010). Environmental, social and economic information management for the evaluation of sustainability in urban areas: A system of indicators for Thessaloniki, Greece. Cities, 27(5), 377-384. DOI:
  45. Murty, M.N., and Kumar, S. (2011). “Water Pollution in India: An Economic Appraisal.” India Infrastructure Report 2011: Water Policy and Performance for Sustainable Development.
  46. National Footprint Accounts (NFA). (2014). Global Footprint Network: Oakland, CA, USA.
  47. National Research Council.(2003). Cities Transformed: Demographic Change and Its Implications in the Developing World, ed. Mark R. Montgomery et al., Panel on Urban Population Dynamics, Committee on Population, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
  48. Newman, P., Jennings, I. (2008). Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems., Island Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2008.
  49. Pandit, J., and Bhardwaj, S.K. (2020). Quality Characterization of Surface Water Sources Using Water Quality Index in Urban Areas of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh. International Research Journal of Pure & Applied Chemistry, 21(24),1-12. DOI:
  50. Pandit, J., Bhardwaj S.K., and Sharma, A.K. (2021). Urban sustainability analysis of Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Current Science,120(7), 1246-1249. DOI:
  51. Parikh, J.K. (1991). Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, “Consumption Patterns: The Driving Force of Environmental Stress” (presented at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.
  52. Pickett, S.T., and Cadenasso, M.L. (2009).Altered resources, disturbance, and heterogeneity: a framework for comparing urban and non-urban soils.Urban Ecosystems,12(1), 23-44. DOI:
  53. Prudhomme,IR.I(1994).I“OnItheIEconomicIRoleIofICities.”IPaperIpreparedIforItheIConferenceIonICitiesIandtheINewIGlobalIEconomy,IGovernmentIofIAustraliaIandItheIOECD,IMelbourne,IAustralia,I2023INovember.
  54. Ramalho, C.E., and Hobbs, R.J. (2012). Time for a change: dynamic urban ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 27, 179–88. DOI:
  55. Ray, A. (2008). “Waste Management in developing Asia, Can Trade and Cooperation Help?”The Journal of Environment and Development 17(1), 3-25. DOI:
  56. Repetti, A., and Desthieux, G. (2006). A relational indicator set model for urban land-use planning and management: methological approach and application in two case studies. Landscape Urban Planning, 77, 196-215. DOI:
  57. Ricketts, TH. (2001). The matrix matters: effective isolation in fragmented landscapes. American Naturalist,158,87-99. DOI:
  58. Rockström, J., Steffen, W.,Noone, K.,Persson, A., and Chapin, F.S. (2009).A safe operating space for humanity.Nature,461, 472-475. DOI:
  59. Saud, T.,Gautam, R.,Mandal, T.K.,Gadi, R., Singh, D.P.,and Sharma, S.K. (2012). Emission estimates of organic and elemental carbon fromhousehold biomass fuel used over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India. Atmospheric Environment, 61, 212–20. DOI:
  60. Schneider, A., Fried, M.A., andPotere, D. (2010).Mapping global urban areas using MODIS 500-m data: newmethods and datasets based on “urban ecoregions.”Remote Sensing Environ, 114,1733–1746. DOI:
  61. Seto, K.C.,Guneralp, B., and Hutyra, L.R. (2012).Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. PNAS, 109, 16083–88. DOI:
  62. Simkin, R.D., Seto, K.C., McDonald, R.I., and Jetz, W. (2022). Biodiversity impacts and conservation implications of urban land expansion projected to 2050. PNAS,119(12), e2117297119. DOI:
  63. Simwela, A., Kintu, M.H.,Morie, S.,and Mekondjo, S.S. (2018).A Literature Review of Impacts of Climate Change and Urbanization on Water Resource Management., an Asian Perspective, 8(5), 417- 423. DOI:
  64. Taylor, J.R., and Hardee, K.A. (1986). Consumer Demand in China: A Statistical Factbook. Boulder: Westview Press.
  65. Tratalos, J., Fuller, R.A., Warren, P.H., Davies, R.G., and Gaston, K.J. (2007). Urban form, biodiversity potential and ecosystem services. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83, 308-317. DOI:
  66. UN WWAP. (2003). United Nations World Water Assessment Programme. The World Water Development Report 1: Water for People, Water for Life. UNESCO: Paris, France.
  67. UNCHS.(1987). Global Report on Human Settlements 1986. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  68. UNDESAPD.(2004). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision (ST/ESA/SER.A/366). New York: United Nations.
  69. UNEP.(2013). Guidelines for National Solid Waste Management Strategies: Moving from challenges to opportunities, UNEP, Vienna.
  70. United Nations.(2015). World population prospects: the 2015 revision. Rep. ESA/P/WP.241, Dep. Econ. Soc. Aff., United Nations, Washington, DC.
  71. Wackernagel, M., and Rees, W.E. (1996). Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada. p. 176
  72. Wackernagel, M., Schulz, B.,Deumling, D., Linares, A.C., and Jenkins, M. (2002).Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,99(14), 9266-9271. DOI:
  73. Wang, J.,Feng, J., Yan, Z., Hu, Y.,and Jia, G. (2012).Nested high-resolution modeling of the impact of urbanization on
  74. regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos, 117,D21103
  75. Wang, Y.,Yeung, Y.M.,and Ng, W.F. (2004).Lanzhou-Xining-Yinchuan urban corridor and China’s Western Development.ActaGeogr.Sinica, 59, 213–22.
  76. Watson, V. (2014). African urban fantasies: Dreams or nightmares? Environ. Urban, 26:215–31. DOI:
  77. Weiland, U. (2006).Sustainability Indicators and Sustainable Development. In: Global Change, Urbanization and Health. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 241 – 250 pp.
  78. Wilby,RL.,and Perry GLW.(2006). Climate change, biodiversity and the urban environment: A critical review based on London, UK. Progress in Physical Geography, 30(1), 73–98. DOI:
  79. Wilson, D.C. (2015). United Nations Environment Programme, International Solid Waste Association (ISWA).Global Waste Management Outlook. Vienna: ISWA.
  80. World Bank.(2012). What a waste: a global review of solid waste management. Urban development series knowledge papers.
  81. Zhang, X., Wu, Y., and Gu, B. (2015). Urban rivers as hotspots of regional nitrogen pollution.Environmental Pollution, 205, 139–144. DOI: