Main Article Content

Abstract

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), of the mint family Lamiaceae, is one of the most highly nutritious crops in the world. It has a high economic value in both national and international markets. The present study was carried out with the prime objective of assessing Chia's morphological, biochemical, and nutritional characterization. An average yield of Chia (784 kg/ha) from the field experiment was observed. The biochemical studies showed the presence of higher amounts of carbohydrates, phenols, flavanols and antioxidants. The seed protein content of Chia was evaluated, and it was found to be 183 mg/g, which was greater than other major crops like wheat, rice and maize. The Carbohydrate content (371 mg/g) was also high in Chia seeds. High amounts of phenols (1.29 mgGAE/g) and flavonoids (0.48 mg/g) in Chia seeds were also observed. The mineral content estimated by ICP-OES showed the presence of micronutrients like Fe (11.7 mg/100g), Mg (335 mg/100g), Mn (5.97 mg/100g), Zn (12.01 mg/100g), Cu (1.94 mg/100g), Ca (397.78 mg/100g), Na (42.15 mg/100g) and K (605.83 mg/100g). The FTIR analysis showed the presence of the functional groups, and high peak banding was found related to protein, pectin (polysaccharides), PUFA (fatty acids), lipids etc. The HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of Gallic acid. Thus the present study unveils that the seeds of the Chia crop are a rich source of different essential elements. Hence this pseudo-cereal Chia can be used to provide good food supplements. As this is a newly introduced crop in India, there is very less study on the crop. To utilize the benefits of this crop, further research in various aspects to increase the environment adaptability and yield should be done.

Keywords

Morphological assessment biochemical analysis nutritional characterization Chia

Article Details

How to Cite
Nagalla, S. Y., Samal, K. C., Behera, L., Sahoo, J. P., Mishra, D., Sahoo, A. R., Praveena, J., & Nargave, C. S. (2022). Morpho-quantitative and biochemical characterization of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds to understand its benefits and to increase its adaptability. Environment Conservation Journal, 23(3), 353–360. https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.10882265

References

  1. Archana, G., Sabina, K., Babuskin, S., Radhakrishnan, K., Fayidh, M. A., Azhagu Saravana Babu, P., Sivarajan, M., Sukumar, M. (2013). Preparation and characterization of mucilage polysaccharide for biomedical applications. Carbohydrate Polymers, 98(6), 89–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.04.062
  2. Beltrán-Orozco, M. C., Martínez-Olguín, A., Robles-Ramírez, M. C. (2020). Changes in the nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) during germination process. The Food Science and Biotechnology, 29 (6), 751–757. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-019-00726-1
  3. Bochicchio, R., Rossi, R., Labella, R., Bitella, G., Amato, M. (2020). Fodder Yield, Quality and Growth of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as Affected by Sowing Density and Top-Dressing Nitrogen Fertilization. Agronomy, 10(12):1980. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121980
  4. Cerqueira, M. A., Souza, B. W. S., Simoes, J., Teixeira, J. A., Domingues, M. R. M., Coimbra, M. A., Vicente, A. A. (2011) Structural and thermal characterization of galactomannans from non-conventional sources. Carbohydrate Polymers 83(1), 179–185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.07.036
  5. Dash, S. S. S., Lenka, D., Sahoo, J. P., Tripathy, S. K., Samal, K. C., Lenka, D., & Panda, R. K. (2022). Biochemical characterization of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids under excessive soil moisture stress. Cereal Research Communications, 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42976-021-00241-2
  6. Dugganaboyana, G. K. et al. (2016). Dietary evaluation, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of crude extract from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) against human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3). International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 8(8), 1358-1362.
  7. Gamez-Meza, N., Noriega-Rodriguez, J., Medina-Juarez, L., OrtegaGarcia, J., Cazarez-Casanova, R., Angulo-Guerrero, O. (1999). Antioxidant activity in soybean oil of extracts from Thompson grape bagasse. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 76(12), 1445–1447. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0182-4
  8. Grimes, S. J., Timothy, P. D., Filippo, C., and Simone, G. H. (2019). Impact of Row Spacing, Sowing Density and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Quality Traits of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Cultivated in southwestern Germany. Agronomy 9(3), 136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9030136
  9. Ixtania, V. Y., Nolasco, S., Tomas, M. (2008). Physical properties of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds. Journal of Industrial Crops and Products 28(3), 286-293. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2008.03.009
  10. Jamboonsri, W., David, H., et al. (2012). Extending the range of an ancient crop, Salvia hispanica L. a new ?3 source. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59(2), 171-178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-011-9673-x
  11. Jin, F., Nieman, D. C., Sha, W., Xie, G., Qiu, Y., Jia, W. (2012). Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 67(2), 105–110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-012-0286-0
  12. Kasuya, M. C. M., da Luz JMR, Nunes, M. D., Paes, S. A., Torres, D. P., Silva, M. D. C. S. D. (2012). Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotusostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 43(4), 1508–1515. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822012000400035
  13. Kaya, B., Menemen, Y., Saltan, F. Z. (2012). Flavonoid Compounds Identified in Alchemilla L. Species Collected in the North-Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines 9(3), 418-425. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v9i3.18
  14. KnezHrn?i?, M., Ivanovski, M., Cör, D., Knez, Ž. (2019). Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.): An Overview-Phytochemical Profile, Isolation Methods, and Application. Molecules 25(1), 11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010011
  15. Lobo, R., Alcocer, M., Fuentes, F., Rodríguez, W., Morandini, M., Devani, M. (2011). Desarrollo del cultivo de chíaen Tucumán, República Argentina. EEAOC – Avance Agro industrial 32(4), 27-30.
  16. Maripandi, A., Prakash, L., & Al-Salamah, A. A. (2010). HPTLC Separation of antibacterial compounds from Perna viridis and Portunus sanguinolentus and its activity tested against common bacterial pathogens. Advanced Biotechnology, 9(9), 24-28.
  17. Martínez-Cruz, O., & Paredes-López, O. (2014). Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical potential of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1346, 43-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2014.04.007
  18. Muñoz, L. A., Cobos, A., Diaz, O., & Aguilera, J. M. (2012). Chia seeds: Microstructure, mucilage extraction and hydration. Journal of food Engineering, 108(1), 216-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.06.037
  19. Pongjanyakul, T., & Puttipipatkhachorn, S. (2007). Xanthan–alginate composite gel beads: molecular interaction and in vitro characterization. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 331(1), 61-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.09.011
  20. Sahoo, J. P., Behera, L., Sharma, S. S., Praveena, J., Nayak, S. K., & Samal, K. C. (2020). Omics Studies and Systems Biology Perspective towards Abiotic Stress Response in Plants. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 11(12), 2172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2020.1112152
  21. Scapin, G., Schmidt, M. M., Prestes, R. C., & Rosa, C. S. (2016). Phenolics compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of chia seed extracts (Salvia hispanica) obtained by different extraction conditions. International Food Research Journal, 23(6).
  22. Shen, Y., Zheng, L., Jin, J., Li, X., Fu, J., Wang, M., & Song, X. (2018). Phytochemical and biological characteristics of mexican chia seed oil. Molecules, 23(12), 3219. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123219
  23. Shimada, K., Fujikawa, K., Yahara, K., & Nakamura, T. (1992). Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 40(6), 945-948. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00018a005
  24. Ullah, R., Nadeem, M., Khalique, A., Imran, M., Mehmood, S., Javid, A., & Hussain, J. (2016). Nutritional and therapeutic perspectives of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a review. Journal of food science and technology, 53(4), 1750-1758. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1967-0
  25. USDA. (2018). National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28. Available online at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl. Accessed on 4th January 2021.
  26. Webmd, 2022. Health Benefits of Chia Seeds. Available at: https://www.webmd.com/diet/health-benefits-chiaseeds#:~:text=Chia%20seeds%20contain%20quercetin%2C%20an,risk%20of%20developing%20heart%20disease.&text=Chia%20seeds%20are%20high%20in%20fiber. Accessed on: 3rd April 2022.
  27. Zasoski, R. J., & Burau, R. G. (1977). A rapid nitric?perchloric acid digestion method for multi?element tissue analysis. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 8(5), 425-436. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00103627709366735
  28. Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T., & Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food chemistry, 64(4), 555-559. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2

Most read articles by the same author(s)