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Biofuels are derived from renewable bio-mass resources and, therefore, provide a strategic advantage to promote sustainable development and to supplement conventional energy sources in meeting the rapidly increasing requirements for transportation fuels associated with high economic growth, as well as in meeting the energy needs of India’s vast rural population. India is major producer of potable and industrial alcohols. The majority of distilleries use molasses as a feed stock. Ethyl alcohol is an important feed stock for the manufacturer of various chemicals. The effluent from the distillery is described as spent wash/vinasse. It was recognized in 2001 by the CPCB that concentrating or drying the spent wash and burning it with ancillary fuel, with energy recovery in the form of steam, is the most attractive alternative as a fertilizer. Distillery Spent Wash (DSW) is a rich source of organic matter and nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sulfur. In addition, it contains sufficient amount of micro-nutrients such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, and molybdenum. Vinasse incineration can claim to be the best viable solution to treat distillery vinasse economically to meet the zero liquid discharge target of the industry. This review indicates that a wide range of
biological as well as physicochemical treatments, over the years for the treatment of distillery spent wash. No single technology can be employed for absolute treatment of distillery spent wash. There is a need to use a mix of treatment options with adequate protocols and guidelines so that spentwash can be gainfully utilized for biogas generation, biocompost, ferti-irrigation, one time land application, irrigation, sodic land reclamation and co-processing.


Biofuels DSW Vinasse incinerator, radiation technology sustainable

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Bhardwaj , S., Ruhela, . M., Bhutiani , R., Ahamad, . F., & Bhardwaj, . R. . (2019). Distellery spent wash (DSW) treatment methodogies and challenges with special reference to incineration: An overview . Environment Conservation Journal, 20(3), 135–144.


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